Current View: All Antweb
Change View
Cite this page

Citing AntWeb

X

To cite this page, please use the following:

· For print: . Accessed

· For web:


Subfamily: Dolichoderinae   Forel, 1878 

Classification:

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2017)

Extant: 4 tribes, 28 genera, 707 species, 128 subspecies

Fossil: 2 tribes, 20 genera, 135 species

Dolichoderidae Forel, 1878c PDF: 364. Type-genus: Dolichoderus. AntCat AntWiki

Taxonomic history

Dolichoderinae as family: Emery, 1894h: 378 [Dolichoderidae]; Ashmead, 1905c PDF: 384 [Dolichoderidae]; Novák & Sadil, 1941 PDF: 94 [Dolichoderidae]; Bernard, 1951c: 1071 [Dolichoderidae]; Bernard, 1953b PDF: 255 [Dolichoderidae].
Dolichoderinae as tribe of Formicidae: André, 1882a: 127 [Dolichoderidae].
Dolichoderinae as subfamily of Formicidae: Forel, 1878c PDF: 364 [Dolichoderidae]; Emery & Forel, 1879a: 454 [Dolichoderidae]; Nasonov, 1889: 26 [Dolichoderidae]; Forel, 1892k PDF: 220 [Dolichoderidae]; Forel, 1893b PDF: 165; Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF: 156; Forel, 1895b PDF: 107 [Dolichoderidae]; Emery, 1895l PDF: 771 [subfamily spelled Dolichoderini]; Emery, 1896e PDF: 186; Forel, 1899B: 98; Bingham, 1903 PDF: 288; Wheeler, 1910a: 142; Emery, 1913a PDF: 2; Arnold, 1915: 143; Wheeler, 1915i PDF: 71; Wheeler, 1915h PDF: 811 [Dolichoderides]; Arnold, 1915: 143; Donisthorpe, 1915f: 178; Forel, 1917 PDF: 247; Escherich, 1917: 2 [Dolichoderini]; Bondroit, 1918 PDF: 86 [Dolichoderitae]; Wheeler, 1920 PDF: 53; Wheeler, 1922: 199; Borgmeier, 1923: 80; Karavaiev, 1936: 163; Smith, 1951c: 833; Clark, 1951 PDF: 16; Brown, 1954e PDF: 29; Kempf, 1972b PDF: 266; Wheeler & Wheeler, 1972a PDF: 41; Brown, 1973b PDF: 169; all subsequent authors.
Dolichoderinae as formicomorph subfamily of Formicidae: Bolton, 2003 PDF: 18, 80.
Dolichoderinae as formicoid dolichoderomorph subfamily of Formicidae: Ward, 2007C PDF: 556.
Subfamily Dolichoderinae and tribes references, world
Forel, 1878c PDF: 364, 380 (diagnosis, genera); Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF: 156 (catalogue); Emery, 1895l PDF: 771 (synoptic classification); Emery, 1896e PDF: 186 (genera key); Handlirsch, 1907: 869 (*fossil taxa catalogue); Wheeler, 1910a: 142 (diagnosis); Emery, 1913a PDF: 2, 6 (diagnosis, tribe key, catalogue); Emery, 1913a PDF: 17 (Tapinomini diagnosis, genera key, catalogue); Arnold, 1915: 144, (diagnosis); Gallardo, 1916b PDF: 3 (diagnosis); Forel, 1917 PDF: 247 (synoptic classification); Forel, 1921c: 136 (diagnosis); Wheeler, 1922: 199, 687, 688 (diagnosis, tribe key, Tapinomini genera key); Brown & Nutting, 1950 PDF: 127 (venation, phylogeny); Brown, 1954e PDF: 29 (phylogeny); Pavan, 1955: 135 (gastral organs); Eisner, 1957 PDF: 453 (proventriculus morphology); Bernard, 1967a PDF: 246 (diagnosis); Gotwald, 1969: 118 (mouthparts morphology); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1972a PDF: 41 (diagnosis); Brown, 1973b PDF: 169 (genera & distribution); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1976b PDF: 61 (larvae, review & synthesis); Snelling, 1981: 401 (synoptic classification); Dazzini Valcurone & Fanfani, 1985: 1 (gastral glands); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1985b PDF: 258 (synoptic classification); Billen, 1986b: 173 (Dufour's gland); Billen, 1987a: 278 (abdominal glands); Baroni Urbani & Wilson, 1987: 1 (*fossil Leptomyrmecini); Dlussky & Fedoseeva, 1988: 77 (synoptic classification); Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990: 9 (synoptic classification, genera keys); Baroni Urbani, Bolton & Ward, 1992 PDF: 316 (phylogeny); Shattuck, 1992b PDF: 199 (higher classification, phylogeny); Shattuck, 1992c PDF: 20 (revision of subfamily, genera key); Shattuck, 1994 PDF: 3 (catalogue); Bolton, 1994: 22 (diagnosis, synoptic classification, genera keys); Shattuck, 1995 PDF: 217 (phylogeny, genera); Bolton, 1995a PDF: 1038 (census); Bolton, 1995b: 10 (catalogue); Wenseleers, Schoeters, et al. 1998: 121 (cloacal gland); Brandão, Baroni Urbani, et al. 1999: 411 (phylogeny, genera); Chiotis, Jermiin & Crozier, 2000: 108 (phylogeny, genera); Dlussky & Rasnitsyn, 2003 PDF: 416 (diagnosis for impression fossils); Bolton, 2003 PDF: 18, 80 (diagnosis, synopsis); Dubovikoff, 2005 PDF: 91 (tribes of Dolichoderinae); Brady, Schultz, et al. 2006: 18173 (phylogeny); Moreau, Bell, Vila, Archibald & Pierce, 2006 PDF: 102 (phylogeny); Ward, Brady, Fisher & Schultz, 2010 PDF: 342 (phylogeny, tribe-rank classification); Keller, 2011 PDF: 1 (morphology, phylogeny); Boudinot, 2015 PDF: 50 (male diagnosis); Fisher & Bolton, 2016: 42 (worker diagnosis)
Regional and national faunas with keys
André, 1882a: 127 (Europe & Algeria); Nasonov, 1889: 50 (Russia); Forel, 1891c PDF: 9 (Madagascar genera); Forel, 1895f PDF: 460 (India & Sri Lanka); Bingham, 1903 PDF: 288 (India, Sri Lanka & Burma); Ruzsky, 1905b: 102 (Russian Empire); Bondroit, 1910 PDF: 488 (Belgium); Wheeler, 1910a: 560 (North America genera); Stitz, 1914: 77 (Central Europe); Gallardo, 1915 PDF: 34 (Argentina genera); Forel, 1915d: 40 (Switzerland); Arnold, 1915: 145 (South Africa); Donisthorpe, 1915f: 178 (Britain); Gallardo, 1916b PDF: 12 (Argentina); Emery, 1916a PDF: 208 (Italy); Wheeler, 1916r: 589 (U.S.A., Connecticut); Bondroit, 1918 PDF: 86 (France & Belgium); Gallardo, 1919b PDF: 253 (Argentina genera); Soudek, 1922b PDF: 58 (Czechoslovakia); Stärcke, 1926: 117 (Netherlands); Karavaiev, 1927d: 271 (Ukraine); Donisthorpe, 1927c: 199 (Britain); Menozzi & Russo, 1930 PDF: 172 (Dominican Republic); Arnol'di, 1933a: 600 (Russia); Menozzi, 1933b PDF: 90 (Israel genera); Karavaiev, 1936: 164 (Ukraine); Smith, 1937 PDF: 861 (Puerto Rico); Stitz, 1939: 209 (Germany); Kratochvíl, 1941b: 94 (Central Europe); Novák & Sadil, 1941 PDF: 94 (Central Europe); Cole, 1942 PDF: 370 (U.S.A., Utah); Smith, 1943e PDF: 309 (U.S.A. males); Buren, 1944a PDF: 290 (U.S.A., Iowa); Smith, 1947f PDF: 592 (U.S.A. genera); Creighton, 1950a PDF: 330 (North America); Kusnezov, 1956a PDF: 27 (Argentina); Brown, 1958h PDF: 29 (New Zealand); Kusnezov, 1959 PDF: 40 (Neotropical genera); Gregg, 1963: 341 (U.S.A., Colorado); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1963: 149 (U.S.A., North Dakota); Bernard, 1967a PDF: 246 (Western Europe); Wilson & Taylor, 1967b PDF: 17 (Polynesia); Bolton, 1973a PDF: 329 (West Africa genera); Bolton & Collingwood, 1975: 3 (Britain); Boven, 1970b: 24 (Netherlands); Snelling & Hunt, 1975 PDF: 90 (Chile); Tarbinsky, 1976 PDF: 118 (Kyrghyzstan); Boven, 1977 PDF: 123 (Belgium); Kutter, 1977c: 170 (Switzerland); Arnol'di & Dlussky, 1978: 546 (former European U.S.S.R.); Collingwood, 1978 PDF: 80 (Iberian Peninsula); Collingwood, 1979 PDF: 32 (Fennoscandia & Denmark); Greenslade, 1979: 28 (South Australia genera); Schembri & Collingwood, 1981 PDF: 420 (Malta); Allred, 1982: 443 (U.S.A., Utah); Baroni Urbani, 1984 PDF: 80 (Neotropical genera); Gösswald, 1985: 314 (Germany); Collingwood, 1985 PDF: 242 (Saudi Arabia); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1986g PDF: 55 (U.S.A., Nevada); Agosti & Collingwood, 1987b PDF: 278 (Balkans); Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990 PDF: 168 (Turkmenistan); Kupyanskaya, 1990a: 152 (Far Eastern Russia); Morisita, Kubota, Onoyama, et al., 1991: 2 (Japan); Atanasov & Dlussky, 1992: 49 (Bulgaria); Lattke, in Jaffe, 1993: 147 (Neotropical genera); Arakelian, 1994 PDF: 70 (Armenia); Wu & Wang, 1995a: 115 (China genera); Kupyanskaya, 1995: 331 (Far Eastern Russia); Collingwood & Agosti, 1996 PDF: 359 (Saudi Arabia); Seifert, 1996B: 161 (Central Europe); Skinner & Allen, 1996: 40 (Britain); Collingwood & Prince, 1998: 20 (Portugal); Kim & Kim K, 1999 PDF: 18 (Korea); Shattuck, 1999: 26, 64 (Australia genera, synopsis); Andersen, 2000: 59 (northern Australia genera); Zhou, 2001A PDF: 149 (China, Guangxi); Czechowski, Radchenko & Czechowska, 2002 PDF: 134 (Poland); Aktaç & Radchenko, 2002: 54 (Turkey genera); Yoshimura & Onoyama, 2002B PDF: 425 (Japan genera, males); Mackay & MacKay, 2002 PDF: 221 (U.S.A., New Mexico); Palacio & Fernández, in CANNOT FIND REFERENCE WITH ID 133005 : 239 (Neotropical genera); Radchenko, 2005B PDF: 186 (North Korea); Coovert, 2005: 102 (U.S.A., Ohio); Clouse, 2007B: 190 (Micronesia); Seifert, 2007: 147 (North and Central Europe); Fisher, 2009A PDF: 51 (Malagasy genera); Terayama, 2009 PDF: 196 (Taiwan); Heterick, 2009 PDF: 28 (south-western Australia genera); Boer, 2010: 14 (Benelux); Yoshimura & Fisher, 2011 PDF: 7 (Malagasy males key); General & Alpert, 2012 PDF: 70 (Philippines genera key).

Distribution:


Afrotropical Region: Angola, Ashanti, Benin, Botswana, Bundibugyo, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Centre-Sud, Coast, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eastern, Eastern Cape, Erongo, Estuaire, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gauteng, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kabarole, Kenya, Kibale NP, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Liberia, Limpopo, Malawi, Manicaland, Maseru, Matabeleland North, Morogoro, Mozambique, Mpumalanga, Namibia, Natal, Nigeria, North West, Northern Cape, Ogooue-Maritime, Pemba, Prefecture Sangha-Mbaéré, Pwani, Rift Valley, Saint Helena, Senegal, Serowe, Somalia, South Africa, Southern, Sud, Sud-Ouest, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Wakiso, Wakiso District, Western Cape, Woleu-Ntem, Zimbabwe
Australasia Region: Australian Capital Territory, Barrow Island, Bay of Plenty, Bismarch Archipelago, Central, Chimbu, Choiseul, East New Britain, East Sepik, Eastern Highlands, Guadalcanal, Gulf, Gulf & Morobe, Kevasop, Lord Howe Island, Madang, Makira-Ulawa, Malaita, Manus, Milne Bay, Morobe, N Solomons, National Capital, New Britain, New Caledonia, New Georgia, New Guinea, New Ireland, New South Wales, New Zealand, Nggela, Norfolk Island, North Island, Northern, Northern Territory, Papua New Guinea, Queensland, Rennell Is., Russell Is., San Cristobal, Sandaun, Santa Cruz Islands, Santa Ysabel Is. [Santa Isabel Is.], Solomon Islands, South, South Australia, Southern Highlands, Tasmania, Temotu, Timor-Leste, Vanuatu, Victoria, West New Britain, West Sepik, Western, Western Australia, Western Highlands, unknown_Australia
Indomalaya Region: Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, Brunei, Cambodia, Chiang Mai, Christmas Island, Goa, Himachal Pradesh, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Irian Jaya, Java, Karnataka, Kerala, Krakatau Islands, Krung Thep Mahanakhon, Laguna, Lampung, Laos, Luzon, Maharashtra, Malacca, Malaysia, Maluku, Maluku Utara, Meghalaya, Mindanao, Myanmar, National Capital Region, Negeri Sembilan, Nepal, Nicobar Island, North Central, North Sumatra, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Papua, Perak, Philippines, Pulau Pinang, Sabah, Sarawak, Selangor, Shan, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sulawesi Selatan, Sulawesi Utara, Sumatra, Sumbawa, Taiwan, Taki, Tamil Nadu, Temburong, Thailand, Timor, Uva, Vietnam, West, West Bengal, West Java, West Papua, West Sumatra
Malagasy Region: Antananarivo, Antsiranana, Comoros, Diego-Suarez, Europa Island, Fianarantsoa, Grande Comore, Juan de Nova Island, Madagascar, Mahajanga, Majunga, Mauritius, Mayotte, Mohéli, Reunion, Rodrigues, Seychelles, Toamasina, Toliara, Tulear
Nearctic Region: Alabama, Alberta, Arizona, Arkansas, British Columbia, California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Kansas, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Carolina, North Dakota, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming
Neotropical Region: Alajuela, Alto Paraguay, Alto Parana, Amazonas, Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Antioquia, Aragua, Argentina, Atacama, Bahamas, Bahia, Baja California Sur, Baja Verapaz, Barbados, Barinas, Belize, Beni, Bermuda, Bolivia, Boquerón, Boyacá, Brazil, Buenos Aires, Cajamarca, Caldas, Canal Zone, Canindeyú, Caquetá, Carazo, Cartago, Cauca, Cayenne, Cayman Islands, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Chile, Chimaltenango, Choluteca, Chontales, Chubut, Cochabamba, Colima, Colombia, Colon, Colonia, Comayagua, Cordillera, Corrientes, Costa Rica, Cotopaxi, Cuba, Cundinamarca, Cusco, Cuyuni-Mazaruni, Demerara, Distrito Capital, Distrito Federal, Distrito Nacional, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Duarte, Durango, Ecuador, El Beni, El Salvador, Escuintla, Espírito Santo, Estelí, Exumas, Federal District, Formosa, Francisco Morazán, French Guiana, Galapagos Islands, Goiás, Gracias a Dios, Granada, Granma, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guairá, Guanacaste, Guanajuato, Guantanamo, Guatemala, Guayas, Guyana, Haiti, Heredia, Hidalgo, Honduras, Huánuco, Islas de la Bahía, Itapúa, Izabal, Jalisco, Jamaica, Jamaica, general, Jinotega, Jujuy, Kingston-St. John, La Guajira, La Libertad, La Paz, La Rioja, La Vega, Lara, Lima, Limón, Loreto, Los Rios, Madre de Dios, Magdalena, Manabí, Managua, Manchester, Maranhão, Maria Trinidad Sanchez, Martinique, Masaya, Matagalpa, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Mendoza, Meta, Michoacan, Minas Gerais, Miranda, Misiones, Monseñor Nouel, Montevideo, Morelos, Napo, Nariño, Nayarit, Neembucú, Nicaragua, Nord, Nueva Segovia, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Olancho, Orellana, Oruro, Ouest, Panam, Panama, Panamá Oeste, Pando, Para, Paraguay, Paraná, Pasco, Pastaza, Pedernales, Pernambuco, Peru, Petén, Pichincha, Port of Spain, Portland, Portuguesa, Pte. Hayes, Puebla, Puerto Rico, Puntarenas, Putumayo, Quindío, Quintana Roo, Región Autónoma del Atlántico Norte, Región Autónoma del Atlántico Sur, Retalhuleu, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio Negro, Rio de Janeiro, Risaralda, Rupununi, Sacatepéquez, Saint Andrew, Saint Ann, Saint James, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Patrick, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Salta, San José, San Luis, San Pedro, San Salvador, Santa Catarina, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santander, Santiago, Santiago de Cuba, Santiago del Estero, Sao Paulo, Sinaloa, Sololá, Sonora, Sonsonate, St. Ann, St. George, Sud-Est, Suriname, Tabasco, Tocantins, Tolima, Trelawny, Trinidad and Tobago, Trujillo, Tucumán, Tungurahua, United States Virgin Islands, Uruguay, Valle de Cauca, Valle del Cauca, Valparaíso, Venezuela, Veracruz, Villa Clara, West Demerara, Zacapa, Zacatecas
Oceania Region: Arno, Austral Islands, Cakaudrove, Cook Islands, Fiji, French Polynesia, Guam, Hawaii, Kadavu, Kiribati, Lau, Lomaiviti, Macuata, Majuro, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Naitaisri, Naitasiri, Namosi, Navosa, Ngeremlengui, Niue, Niue Is., Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Palau Islands, Pitcairn, Pohnpei, Ra, Rewa, SW Carolines, Samoa, Society Islands, South Cook, Tailevu, Tokelau, Tonga, Truk Islands, Tuamasaga, Vuda, Vunda, W Carolines, WC Carolines, Wainikeli, Wallis and Futuna Islands, Yap Group
Palearctic Region: Aegean Islands, Afghanistan, Al Bahah, Albania, Algeria, Alicante, Amur, Andalucia, Andalusia, Andorra, Ar Riyad, Armenia, Attica, Austria, Azerbaijan, Azores, Baja California, Balearic Islands, Barcelona, Belarus, Belgium, Berlin, Blagoevgrad province, Brandenburg, Brussel Hoofdstedelijk G, Bruxelles, Bulgaria, Campania, Canary Islands, Catalonia, Cataluña, Central Greece, Channel Islands, China, Corsica, Crete, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dodecanese, Dolnoslaskie, Dublin, Emilia-Romagna, England, Estremadura, Faro, Finland, France, Fukuoka, Galicia, Georgia, Germany, Gibraltar, Greece, Hainaut, Hokkaido, Hovedstaden, Huelva, Hunan, Hungary, Ionian Islands, Iran, Ireland, Isfahan, Islas Baleares, Israel, Italy, Jammu and Kashmir, Japan, Kagoshima, Kairouan, Kazakhstan, Kherson, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Liechtenstein, Liguria, Limburg, Lisboa, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macaronesia, Macedonia, Madeira, Madeira Islands, Malta, Mazandaran, Monaco, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Namur, Netherlands, North Korea, Okinawa, Oman, Oost-Vlaanderen, Peloponnese, Plzensky, Poland, Porto, Portugal, Qatar, Republic of Moldova, Riyadh, Romania, Russia, S. Fiel, Saudi Arabia, Scotland, Serbia, Sicilia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Smoljan, South Aegean, Spain, Steiermark, Sweden, Switzerland, Syrdarya, Syria, Thessaly, Toscana, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Umbria, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Uzbekistan, Valais, Vidin, Vlaams-Brabant, West Hupeh, West-Vlaanderen, Yemen, Yunnan, Zanjan, Zurich, Åland Islands

Identification:

Like the Formicinae (q.v.), the members of this subfamily lack a postpetiole and a functional sting. The antennal sockets are adjacent to the posterior margin of the clypeus, and the apex of the abdomen has a slit-shaped orifice, rather than an acidopore. As in the Formicinae, the clypeus is broad, the eyes are usually well developed, the antennal insertions are not wholly concealed by the frontal carinae, and the promesonotal suture is present and generally flexible.

Notes:

Although less species-rich than the Formicinae, dolichoderine ants are often among the dominant species in an ant community. About a dozen species occur in California.

References:

Billen (1987a); Bolton (1994); Brandão et al. (1999); Chiotis et al. (2000); Shattuck (1992b, 1992c, 1995).

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Treatment Citation: Collingwood, C. A., 1979, The Formicidae (Hymenoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark., Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica 8, pp. 1-174

SUBFAMILY DOLICHODERINAEHNS FOREL

This subfamily includes fifteen genera with the greatest number of species distributed through the tropics. The sting is vestigial or absent but many species have poison glands that excrete a repellent fluid through the anal orifice. The gaster has a reduced number of segments compared with FormicinaeHNS and Ponerinae of which four only are visible in dorsal view in the female castes and five in the males. Pupae are not protected by cocoons. The two genera treated here both belong in the tribe TapinominiHNS.

Keys to genera of DolichoderinaeHNS

Queens and workers

1 Petiole scale well developed, not obscured by overhanging gaster; front border of clypeus convex and entire (Fig. 20)................................. IridomyrmexHNS Mayr (p. 33)

- Petiole a small node overhung by first gastral segment; front border of clypeus straight, incised or concave (Fig. 22) ............................ TapinomaHNS Forster (p. 34)

Males

1 Petiole scale well developed. Scape short, not reaching occipital margin IridomyrmexHNS Mayr (p. 33)

- Petiole a reduced node. Scape long, overreaching occipital margin TapinomaHNS Forster (p. 34)



See something amiss? Send us an email.
Enlarge Map