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Subfamily: Dolichoderinae   Forel, 1878 


Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2016)

Extant: 4 tribes, 28 genera, 707 species, 129 subspecies

Fossil: 2 tribes, 20 genera, 134 species

Dolichoderidae Forel, 1878c PDF: 364 . Type-genus: Dolichoderus. AntCat AntWiki

Taxonomic history

Dolichoderinae as family: Emery, 1894h: 378 [Dolichoderidae]; Ashmead, 1905c PDF: 384 [Dolichoderidae]; Novák & Sadil, 1941 PDF: 94 [Dolichoderidae]; Bernard, 1951c: 1071 [Dolichoderidae]; Bernard, 1953b PDF: 255 [Dolichoderidae].
Dolichoderinae as tribe of Formicidae: André, 1882a}: 127 [Dolichoderidae].
Dolichoderinae as subfamily of Formicidae: Forel, 1878c PDF: 364 [Dolichoderidae]; Emery & Forel, 1879a: 454 [Dolichoderidae]; Nasonov, 1889: 26 [Dolichoderidae]; Forel, 1892k PDF: 220 [Dolichoderidae]; Forel, 1893b PDF: 165; Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF}: 156; Forel, 1895b PDF: 107 [Dolichoderidae]; Emery, 1895l PDF: 771 [subfamily spelled Dolichoderini]; Emery, 1896e PDF: 186; Forel, 1899B: 98; Bingham, 1903 PDF: 288; Wheeler, 1910a: 142; Emery, 1913a PDF: 2; Arnold, 1915: 143; Wheeler, 1915i PDF: 71; Wheeler, 1915h PDF: 811 [Dolichoderides]; Arnold, 1915: 143; Donisthorpe, 1915f: 178; Forel, 1917 PDF: 247; Escherich, 1917: 2 [Dolichoderini]; Bondroit, 1918 PDF: 86 [Dolichoderitae]; Wheeler, 1920 PDF: 53; Wheeler, 1922: 199; Borgmeier, 1923: 80; Karavaiev, 1936: 163; Smith, 1951c: 833; Clark, 1951 PDF: 16; Brown, 1954e PDF}: 29; Kempf, 1972b PDF: 266; Wheeler & Wheeler, 1972a PDF: 41; Brown, 1973b PDF}: 169; all subsequent authors.
Dolichoderinae as formicomorph subfamily of Formicidae: Bolton, 2003 PDF: 18, 80.
Dolichoderinae as formicoid subfamily of Formicidae: Brady, Schultz, et al. 2006: 18173; Moreau, Bell, et al. 2006: 102.
Dolichoderinae as formicoid dolichoderomorph subfamily of Formicidae: Ward, 2007C PDF: 556.
Subfamily Dolichoderinae and tribes references, world
Forel, 1878cForel, A. 1878c. Études myrmécologiques en 1878 (première partie) avec l'anatomie du gésier des fourmis. Bulletin de la Société Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles 15:337-392. [1878-10] PDF 125003: 364, 380 (diagnosis, genera); Dalla Torre, 1893Dalla Torre, K. W. 1893. Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus. Vol. 7. Formicidae (Heterogyna). Leipzig: W. Engelmann, 289 pp. [1893] PDF 124002: 156 (catalogue); Emery, 1895lEmery, C. 1895l. Die Gattung Dorylus Fab. und die systematische Eintheilung der Formiciden. Zoologische Jahrbücher. Abteilung für Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der Tiere 8:685-778. [1895-10-18] PDF 124599: 771 (synoptic classification); Emery, 1896eEmery, C. 1896e. Clef analytique des genres de la famille des Formicides, pour la détermination des neutres. Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 40:172-189. [1896-05-02>] PDF 124609: 186 (genera key); Handlirsch, 1907Handlirsch, A. 1907. Die fossilen Insekten und die Phylogenie der rezenten Formen. Ein Handbuch für Paläontologen und Zoologen. Lieferung 6. Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann, pp. 801-960. [1907-06] 125751: 869 (*fossil taxa catalogue); Wheeler, 1910aWheeler, W. M. 1910a. Ants: their structure, development and behavior. New York: Columbia University Press, xxv + 663 pp. [1910-03] 130044: 142 (diagnosis); Emery, 1913aEmery, C. 1913a ("1912"). Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Dolichoderinae. Genera Insectorum 137:1-50. [1913-03-08] PDF 124711: 2, 6 (diagnosis, tribe key, catalogue); Emery, 1913aEmery, C. 1913a ("1912"). Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Dolichoderinae. Genera Insectorum 137:1-50. [1913-03-08] PDF 124711: 17 (Tapinomini diagnosis, genera key, catalogue); Arnold, 1915Arnold, G. 1915. A monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. Part I. Ponerinae, Dorylinae. Annals of the South African Museum 14:1-159. [1915-02-11] 122309: 144, (diagnosis); Gallardo, 1916bGallardo, A. 1916b. Las hormigas de la República Argentina. Subfamilia Dolicoderinas. Anales del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Buenos Aires 28:1-130. [1916-05-18] PDF 125416: 3 (diagnosis); Forel, 1917Forel, A. 1917. Cadre synoptique actuel de la faune universelle des fourmis. Bulletin de la Société Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles 51:229-253. [1917-03-08] PDF 124997: 247 (synoptic classification); Forel, 1921cForel, A. 1921c. Le monde social des fourmis comparé à celui de l'homme. Tome 1. Genèse, formes, anatomie, classification. géographie, fossiles. Genève: Librairie Kundig, xiv + 192 pp. [1921] 125267: 136 (diagnosis); Wheeler, 1922Wheeler, W. M. 1922. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. New York: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 1139. 133015: 199, 687, 688 (diagnosis, tribe key, Tapinomini genera key); Brown & Nutting, 1950Brown, W. L., Jr.; Nutting, W. L. 1950. Wing venation and the phylogeny of the Formicidae. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 75:113-132. [1950-01-04] PDF 123254: 127 (venation, phylogeny); Brown, 1954eBrown, W. L., Jr. 1954e. Remarks on the internal phylogeny and subfamily classification of the family Formicidae. Insectes Sociaux 1:21-31. [1954-03] PDF 123108: 29 (phylogeny); Pavan, 1955Pavan, M. 1955. Studi sui Formicidae. I. Contributo alla conoscenza degli organi gastrali dei Dolichoderinae. Natura (Milan) 46:135-145. [1955-09] 127733: 135 (gastral organs); Eisner, 1957Eisner, T. 1957. A comparative morphological study of the proventriculus of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 116:439-490. [1957-07] PDF 124480: 453 (proventriculus morphology); Bernard, 1967aBernard, F. 1967a ("1968"). Faune de l'Europe et du Bassin Méditerranéen. 3. Les fourmis (Hymenoptera Formicidae) d'Europe occidentale et septentrionale. Paris: Masson, 411 pp. [1967-11] PDF 122660: 246 (diagnosis); Gotwald, 1969: 118 (mouthparts morphology); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1972aWheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1972a. The subfamilies of Formicidae. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 74:35-45. [1972-03-28] PDF 129891: 41 (diagnosis); Brown, 1973bBrown, W. L., Jr. 1973b. A comparison of the Hylean and Congo-West African rain forest ant faunas. Pp. 161-185 in: Meggers, B. J.; Ayensu, E. S.; Duckworth, W. D. (eds.) 1973. Tropical forest ecosystems in Africa and South America: a comparative review. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, viii + 350 pp. [1973-01] PDF 123216: 169 (genera & distribution); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1976bWheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1976b. Ant larvae: review and synthesis. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Washington 7:1-108. [1976] PDF 129906: 61 (larvae, review & synthesis); Snelling, 1981Snelling, R. R. 1981. Systematics of social Hymenoptera. Pp. 369-453 in: Hermann, H. R. (ed.) 1981. Social insects. Volume 2. New York: Academic Press, xiii + 491 pp. [1981] [1981] 128876: 401 (synoptic classification); Dazzini Valcurone & Fanfani, 1985Dazzini Valcurone, M.; Fanfani, A. 1985. Investigations on Formicidae: Pavan's gland and other glands of the gaster in Dolichoderinae. Pubblicazioni dell'Istituto di Entomologia Agraria dell'Università di Pavia 31:1-20. [1985] 124025: 1 (gastral glands); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1985bWheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1985b. A simplified conspectus of the Formicidae. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 111:255-264. [1985-07-30] PDF 129918: 258 (synoptic classification); Billen, 1986bBillen, J. P. J. 1986b. Comparative morphology and ultrastructure of the Dufour gland in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Entomologia Generalis 11:165-181. [1986-05-30] 122738: 173 (Dufour's gland); Billen, 1987aBillen, J. P. J. 1987a ("1986"). Morphology and ultrastructure of the abdominal glands in dolichoderine ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Insectes Sociaux 33:278-295. [1987-03] 122739: 278 (abdominal glands); Baroni Urbani & Wilson, 1987Baroni Urbani, C.; Wilson, E. O. 1987. The fossil members of the ant tribe Leptomyrmecini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Psyche (Cambridge) 94:1-8. [1987-10-06] 122524: 1 (*fossil Leptomyrmecini); Dlussky & Fedoseeva, 1988Dlussky, G. M.; Fedoseeva, E. B. 1988. Origin and early stages of evolution in ants. [In Russian.]. Pp. 70-144 in: Ponomarenko, A. G. (ed.) 1988. Cretaceous biocenotic crisis and insect evolution. [In Russian.]. Moskva: Nauka, 232 pp. [1987-12-22>] 124165: 77 (synoptic classification); Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990Hölldobler, B.; Wilson, E. O. 1990. The ants. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, xii + 732 pp. 122852: 9 (synoptic classification, genera keys); Baroni Urbani, Bolton & Ward, 1992Baroni Urbani, C.; Bolton, B.; Ward, P. S. 1992. The internal phylogeny of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Systematic Entomology 17:301-329. [1992-10] PDF 122513: 316 (phylogeny); Shattuck, 1992bShattuck, S. O. 1992b. Higher classification of the ant subfamilies Aneuretinae, Dolichoderinae and Formicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Systematic Entomology 17:199-206. [1992-04] PDF 128604: 199 (higher classification, phylogeny); Shattuck, 1992cShattuck, S. O. 1992c. Generic revision of the ant subfamily Dolichoderinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 21:1-181. [1992] PDF 128605: 20 (revision of subfamily, genera key); Shattuck, 1994Shattuck, S. O. 1994. Taxonomic catalog of the ant subfamilies Aneuretinae and Dolichoderinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). University of California Publications in Entomology 112:i-xix, 1-241. [1994-01] PDF 128601: 3 (catalogue); Bolton, 1994Bolton, B. 1994. Identification guide to the ant genera of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 222 pp. [1994-07-25] 122834: 22 (diagnosis, synoptic classification, genera keys); Shattuck, 1995Shattuck, S. O. 1995. Generic-level relationships within the ant subfamily Dolichoderinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Systematic Entomology 20:217-228. [1995-10-07] PDF 128602: 217 (phylogeny, genera); Bolton, 1995aBolton, B. 1995a. A taxonomic and zoogeographical census of the extant ant taxa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of Natural History 29:1037-1056. [1995-08] PDF 122859: 1038 (census); Bolton, 1995bBolton, B. 1995b. A new general catalogue of the ants of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 504 pp. [1995-10] 122860: 10 (catalogue); Wenseleers, Schoeters, et al. 1998: 121 (cloacal gland); Brandão, Baroni Urbani, et al. 1999: 411 (phylogeny, genera); Chiotis, Jermiin & Crozier, 2000Chiotis, M.; Jermiin, L. S.; Crozier, R. H. 2000. A molecular framework for the phylogeny of the ant subfamily Dolichoderinae. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 17:108-116. [2000-10] 130913: 108 (phylogeny, genera); Dlussky & Rasnitsyn, 2003Dlussky, G. M.; Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2003 ("2002"). Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Formation Green River and some other Middle Eocene deposits of North America. Russian Entomological Journal 11:411-436. [2003-06] PDF 131135: 416 (diagnosis for impression fossils); Bolton, 2003Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and classification of Formicidae. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 71:1-370. [2003-11-10] PDF 130789: 18, 80 (diagnosis, synopsis); Dubovikoff, 2005Dubovikoff, D. A. 2005. The system of taxon Bothriomyrmex Emery, 1869 sensu lato (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and relatives genera. [In Russian.]. Kavkazskii Entomologicheskii Byulleten 1:89-94. PDF 131153: 91 (tribes of Dolichoderinae); Brady, Schultz, et al. 2006: 18173 (phylogeny); Moreau, Bell, Vila, Archibald & Pierce, 2006Moreau, C. S.; Bell, C. D.; Vila, R.; Archibald, S. B.; Pierce, N. E. 2006. Phylogeny of the ants: diversification in the age of angiosperms. Science (Washington, D. C.) 312:101-104. [2006-04-07] PDF 131881: 102 (phylogeny); Ward, Brady, Fisher & Schultz, 2010Ward, P. S.; Brady, S. G.; Fisher, B. L.; Schultz, T. R. 2010. Phylogeny and biogeography of dolichoderine ants: effects of data partitioning and relict taxa on historical inference. Systematic Biology 59:342-362. [2010-05] PDF 132578: 342 (phylogeny, tribe-rank classification); Keller, 2011Keller, R. A. 2011. A phylogenetic analysis of ant morphology (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with special reference to the poneromorph subfamilies. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 355:1-90. [2011-08-10] PDF 132879: 1 (morphology, phylogeny); Boudinot, 2015Boudinot, B. E. 2015. Contributions to the knowledge of Formicidae (Hymenoptera, Aculeata): a new diagnosis of the family, the first global male-based key to subfamilies, and a treatment of early branching lineages. European Journal of Taxonomy 120:1-62. PDF 142740: 50 (male diagnosis)
Regional and national faunas with keys
André, 1882aAndré, Ern. 1882a. Les fourmis. [part]. Pp. 49-80 in: André, Edm. 1882. 1881-1886. Species des Hyménoptères d'Europe et d'Algérie. Tome Deuxième. Beaune: Edmond André, 919 + 48 pp. [1882-01] 122251}: 127 (Europe & Algeria); Nasonov, 1889Nasonov, N. V. 1889. Contribution to the natural history of the ants primarily of Russia. 1. Contribution to the ant fauna of Russia. [In Russian.]. Izvestiya Imperatorskago Obshchestva Lyubitelei Estestvoznaniya Antropologii i Etnografii pri Imperatorskom Moskovskom Universitete 58:1-78. [1889] 127508: 50 (Russia); Forel, 1891cForel, A. 1891c. Les Formicides. [part]. In: Grandidier, A. 1891. Histoire physique, naturelle, et politique de Madagascar. Volume XX. Histoire naturelle des Hyménoptères. Deuxième partie (28e fascicule). Paris: Hachette et Cie, v + 237 pp. [1891] PDF 125030: 9 (Madagascar genera); Forel, 1895fForel, A. 1895f. Les Formicides de l'Empire des Indes et de Ceylan. Part V. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 9:453-472. [1895-06-20] PDF 125069: 460 (India & Sri Lanka); Bingham, 1903Bingham, C. T. 1903. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera, Vol. II. Ants and Cuckoo-wasps. London: Taylor and Francis, 506 pp. [1903] PDF 122766: 288 (India, Sri Lanka & Burma); Ruzsky, 1905bRuzsky, M. 1905b. The ants of Russia. (Formicariae Imperii Rossici). Systematics, geography and data on the biology of Russian ants. Part I. [In Russian.]. Trudy Obshchestva Estestvoispytatelei pri Imperatorskom Kazanskom Universitete 38(4-6):1-800. [1905] 128184: 102 (Russian Empire); Bondroit, 1910Bondroit, J. 1910 ("1909"). Les fourmis de Belgique. Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 53:479-500. [1910-01-05] PDF 122874: 488 (Belgium); Wheeler, 1910aWheeler, W. M. 1910a. Ants: their structure, development and behavior. New York: Columbia University Press, xxv + 663 pp. [1910-03] 130044: 560 (North America genera); Stitz, 1914Stitz, H. 1914. Die Ameisen (Formicidae) Mitteleuropas, insbesondere Deutschlands. Pp. 1-111 in: Schröder, C. (ed.) 1914. Die Insekten Mitteleuropas insbesondere Deutschlands. Band II, Hymenopteren, 2. Teil. Stuttgart: Franckh'sche Verlagshandlung, 256 pp. [1914] 129025: 77 (Central Europe); Gallardo, 1915Gallardo, A. 1915. Observaciones sobre algunas hormigas de la República Argentina. Anales del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Buenos Aires 27:1-35. [1915-06-03] PDF 125411: 34 (Argentina genera); Forel, 1915dForel, A. 1915d. Fauna insectorum helvetiae. Hymenoptera. Formicidae. Die Ameisen der Schweiz. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft 12(Beilage):1-77. [1915] 125260: 40 (Switzerland); Arnold, 1915Arnold, G. 1915. A monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. Part I. Ponerinae, Dorylinae. Annals of the South African Museum 14:1-159. [1915-02-11] 122309: 145 (South Africa); Donisthorpe, 1915fDonisthorpe, H. 1915f. British ants, their life-history and classification. Plymouth: Brendon & Son Ltd., xv + 379 pp. [1915] 124216: 178 (Britain); Gallardo, 1916bGallardo, A. 1916b. Las hormigas de la República Argentina. Subfamilia Dolicoderinas. Anales del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Buenos Aires 28:1-130. [1916-05-18] PDF 125416: 12 (Argentina); Emery, 1916aEmery, C. 1916a ("1915"). Fauna entomologica italiana. I. Hymenoptera.-Formicidae. Bullettino della Società Entomologica Italiana 47:79-275. [1916-11-30] PDF 124734: 208 (Italy); Wheeler, 1916rWheeler, W. M. 1916r. Formicoidea. Formicidae. Pp. 577-601 in: Viereck, H. L. 1916. Guide to the insects of Connecticut. Part III. The Hymenoptera, or wasp-like insects, of Connecticut. Connecticut State Geological and Natural History Survey. Bulletin 22:1-824. [1916] 130115: 589 (U.S.A., Connecticut); Bondroit, 1918Bondroit, J. 1918. Les fourmis de France et de Belgique. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 87:1-174. [1918-12-24] PDF 122872: 86 (France & Belgium); Gallardo, 1919bGallardo, A. 1919b. Hormigas del Neuquén y Río Negro. Anales del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Buenos Aires 30:243-254. [1919-08-02] PDF 125424: 253 (Argentina genera); Soudek, 1922bSoudek, S. 1922b. Mravenci. Soustava, zemepisné rozsírení, oekologie a urcovací klíc mravencu zijících na území Ceskoslovenské republiky. Praha: Ceskoslovenská Spolecnost Entomologická, 100 pp. [1922] PDF 128940: 58 (Czechoslovakia); Stärcke, 1926Stärcke, A. 1926. Nieuwe Nederlandsche Formiciden (benevens enkele systematische opmerkingen). Entomologische Berichten (Amsterdam) 7:86-97. [1926-05-01] 128985}: 117 (Netherlands); Karavaiev, 1927dKaravaiev, V. 1927d. The ant fauna of Ukraine. [In Ukrainian.]. Zbirnyk Prats' Zoolohichnoho Muzeyu 2:1-52 [= Trudy. Ukrains'ka Akademiya Nauk. Fizichno-Matematichnoho Viddilu 4:247-296]. [1927] 126255: 271 (Ukraine); Donisthorpe, 1927cDonisthorpe, H. 1927c. British ants, their life history and classification (2nd edn.). London: G. Routledge and Sons, xvi + 436 pp. [1927] 124250: 199 (Britain); Menozzi & Russo, 1930Menozzi, C.; Russo, G. 1930. Contributo alla conoscenza della mirmecofauna della Repubblica Dominicana (Antille). Bollettino del Laboratorio di Zoologia Generale e Agraria della Reale Scuola Superiore d'Agricoltura. Portici 24:148-173. PDF 127353: 172 (Dominican Republic); Arnol'di, 1933aArnol'di, K. V. 1933a. Formicidae - ants. [In Russian.]. Pp. 594-605 in: Filip'ev, I. N.; Ogloblin, D. A. (eds.) 1933. Keys to insects. [In Russian.]. Moskva: Ogiz, viii + 820 pp. [1933-12-03>] 122356: 600 (Russia); Menozzi, 1933bMenozzi, C. 1933b. Le formiche della Palestina. Memorie della Società Entomologica Italiana 12:49-113. [1933-06-15] PDF 127374: 90 (Israel genera); Karavaiev, 1936Karavaiev, V. 1936. The fauna of the family Formicidae (ants) of the Ukraine. Part II (conclusion). [In Ukrainian.]. Trudy Instytutu Zoolohii ta Biolohii Ukrains'koi Akademii Nauk. Seriya 1. Pratsi z Systematyky ta Faunistyky 1936:161-316. [1936-05-26>] 126235: 164 (Ukraine); Smith, 1937Smith, M. R. 1937 ("1936"). The ants of Puerto Rico. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico 20:819-875. [1937-01] PDF 128776: 861 (Puerto Rico); Stitz, 1939Stitz, H. 1939. Die Tierwelt Deutschlands und der angrenzenden Meersteile nach ihren Merkmalen und nach ihrer Lebensweise. 37. Theil. Hautflüger oder Hymenoptera. I: Ameisen oder Formicidae. Jena: G. Fischer, 428 pp. [1939] 129033: 209 (Germany); Kratochvíl, 1941bKratochvíl, J. 1941b. [Untitled. New subgenera of Tetramorium, and a new subspecies, Tetramorium ferox silhavyi, attributed to Kratochvíl.]. P. 84 in: Novák, V.; Sadil, J. 1941. Klíc k urcování mravencu strední Evropy se zvlástním zretelem k mravencí zvírene Cech a Moravy. Entomologické Listy 4:65-115. [1941] 126513: 94 (Central Europe); Novák & Sadil, 1941Novák, V.; Sadil, J. 1941. Klíc k urcování mravencu strední Evropy se zvlástním zretelem k mravencí zvírene Cech a Moravy. Entomologické Listy 4:65-115. PDF 126512: 94 (Central Europe); Cole, 1942Cole, A. C., Jr. 1942. The ants of Utah. American Midland Naturalist 28:358-388. [1942-10-13] PDF 123672}: 370 (U.S.A., Utah); Smith, 1943eSmith, M. R. 1943e. A generic and subgeneric synopsis of the male ants of the United States. American Midland Naturalist 30:273-321. [1943-10-22] PDF 128795: 309 (U.S.A. males); Buren, 1944aBuren, W. F. 1944a. A list of Iowa ants. Iowa State College Journal of Science 18:277-312. [1944-04] PDF 123329: 290 (U.S.A., Iowa); Smith, 1947fSmith, M. R. 1947f. A generic and subgeneric synopsis of the United States ants, based on the workers. American Midland Naturalist 37:521-647. [1947-07-27] PDF 128808: 592 (U.S.A. genera); Creighton, 1950aCreighton, W. S. 1950a. The ants of North America. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 104:1-585. [1950-04] PDF 123910: 330 (North America); Kusnezov, 1956aKusnezov, N. 1956a. Claves para la identificación de las hormigas de la fauna argentina. Idia 104-105:1-56. [1956-09] PDF 126654: 27 (Argentina); Brown, 1958hBrown, W. L., Jr. 1958h. A review of the ants of New Zealand. Acta Hymenopterologica 1:1-50. [1958-07-30] PDF 123147}: 29 (New Zealand); Kusnezov, 1959Kusnezov, N. 1959. Die Dolichoderinen-Gattungen von Süd-Amerika (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Zoologischer Anzeiger 162:38-51. [1959-01] PDF 126609: 40 (Neotropical genera); Gregg, 1963Gregg, R. E. 1963. The ants of Colorado, with reference to their ecology, taxonomy, and geographic distribution. Boulder: University of Colorado Press, xvi + 792 pp. [1963] 125667: 341 (U.S.A., Colorado); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1963Wheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1963. The ants of North Dakota. Grand Forks, North Dakota: University of North Dakota Press, viii + 326 pp. [1963] 129848: 149 (U.S.A., North Dakota); Bernard, 1967aBernard, F. 1967a ("1968"). Faune de l'Europe et du Bassin Méditerranéen. 3. Les fourmis (Hymenoptera Formicidae) d'Europe occidentale et septentrionale. Paris: Masson, 411 pp. [1967-11] PDF 122660: 246 (Western Europe); Wilson & Taylor, 1967bWilson, E. O.; Taylor, R. W. 1967b. The ants of Polynesia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Pacific Insects Monograph 14:1-109. [1967-08-15] PDF 130430: 17 (Polynesia); Bolton, 1973aBolton, B. 1973a. The ant genera of West Africa: a synonymic synopsis with keys (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Entomology 27:317-368. [1973-01-18] PDF 122835: 329 (West Africa genera); Bolton & Collingwood, 1975Bolton, B.; Collingwood, C. A. 1975. Handbooks for the identification of British Insects. Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects 6(3(c)):1-34. [1975-06] 122862: 3 (Britain); Boven, 1970bBoven, J. K. A. 1970b. Le polymorphisme des ouvrières de Megaponera foetens Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Publicatiës van het Natuurhistorisch Genootschap in Limburg 20(3/4):5-9. [1970] 122979}: 24 (Netherlands); Snelling & Hunt, 1975Snelling, R. R.; Hunt, J. H. 1975. The ants of Chile (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Revista Chilena de Entomología 9:63-129. [1976-05] PDF 128906: 90 (Chile); Tarbinsky, 1976Tarbinsky, Y. S. 1976. The ants of Kirghizia. [In Russian.]. Frunze: Ilim, 217 pp. [1976-06-04>] PDF 129149: 118 (Kyrghyzstan); Boven, 1977Boven, J. K. A. 1977. De mierenfauna van België (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Acta Zoologica et Pathologica Antverpiensia 67:1-191. [1977-06] PDF 122960}: 123 (Belgium); Kutter, 1977cKutter, H. 1977c. Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Insecta Helvetica. Fauna 6:1-298. [1977] 126740: 170 (Switzerland); Arnol'di & Dlussky, 1978Arnol'di, K. V.; Dlussky, G. M. 1978. Superfam. Formicoidea. 1. Fam. Formicidae - ants. 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African Region: Angola, Benin, Botswana, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Macaronesia, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Saint Helena, Senegal, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zimbabwe
Australian Region: Australia, Barrow Island, Lord Howe Island, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Zealand, Norfolk Island, Queensland, Solomon Islands, Western Australia
Eurasian Region: Afghanistan, Åland Islands, Albania, Algeria, Alicante, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Balearic Islands, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Channel Islands, China, Crete, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Germany, Gibraltar, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Monaco, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Netherlands, North Korea, Oman, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Uzbekistan
Malagasy Region: Comoros, Europa Island, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mayotte, Reunion, Seychelles
Nearctic Region: Alabama, Alberta, Arizona, Arkansas, Baja California, British Columbia, California, Canada, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Kansas, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming
Neotropical Region: Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil, Cayman Islands, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Galapagos Islands, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Martinique, Mato Grosso do Sul, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, United States Virgin Islands, Uruguay, Venezuela
Pacific Islands Region: Cook Islands, Fiji, French Polynesia, Guam, Hawaii, Indonesia, Kiribati, Malaysia, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Niue, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Pitcairn, Samoa, Singapore, Timor-Leste, Tokelau, Tonga, Vanuatu, Wallis and Futuna Islands
South East Asia Region: Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, Christmas Island, India, Krakatau Islands, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicobar Island, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Xishuangbanna


Like the Formicinae (q.v.), the members of this subfamily lack a postpetiole and a functional sting. The antennal sockets are adjacent to the posterior margin of the clypeus, and the apex of the abdomen has a slit-shaped orifice, rather than an acidopore. As in the Formicinae, the clypeus is broad, the eyes are usually well developed, the antennal insertions are not wholly concealed by the frontal carinae, and the promesonotal suture is present and generally flexible.


Although less species-rich than the Formicinae, dolichoderine ants are often among the dominant species in an ant community. About a dozen species occur in California.


Billen (1987a); Bolton (1994); Brandão et al. (1999); Chiotis et al. (2000); Shattuck (1992b, 1992c, 1995).

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Treatment Citation: Collingwood, C. A., 1979, The Formicidae (Hymenoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark., Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica 8, pp. 1-174


This subfamily includes fifteen genera with the greatest number of species distributed through the tropics. The sting is vestigial or absent but many species have poison glands that excrete a repellent fluid through the anal orifice. The gaster has a reduced number of segments compared with FormicinaeHNS and Ponerinae of which four only are visible in dorsal view in the female castes and five in the males. Pupae are not protected by cocoons. The two genera treated here both belong in the tribe TapinominiHNS.

Keys to genera of DolichoderinaeHNS

Queens and workers

1 Petiole scale well developed, not obscured by overhanging gaster; front border of clypeus convex and entire (Fig. 20)................................. IridomyrmexHNS Mayr (p. 33)

- Petiole a small node overhung by first gastral segment; front border of clypeus straight, incised or concave (Fig. 22) ............................ TapinomaHNS Forster (p. 34)


1 Petiole scale well developed. Scape short, not reaching occipital margin IridomyrmexHNS Mayr (p. 33)

- Petiole a reduced node. Scape long, overreaching occipital margin TapinomaHNS Forster (p. 34)

(-1 examples)

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