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Subfamily: Ecitoninae   Forel, 1893 

Classification:

Current Valid Name:

dorylinae

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2016)

Ecitonii Forel, 1893b PDF: 163 . Type-genus: Eciton. AntCat AntWiki HOL

Taxonomic history

Ecitoninae as subfamily of Dorylidae: Ashmead, 1905c PDF: 381; Ashmead, 1906 PDF: 23.
Ecitoninae as subfamily of Formicidae: Brown, 1973b PDF: 166; Snelling, 1981: 392; Bolton, 1990c PDF: 1357; Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990: 11; all subsequent authors.
Ecitoninae as dorylomorph subfamily of Formicidae: Bolton, 2003 PDF: 34, 142; Brady & Ward, 2005 PDF: 593.
Ecitoninae as formicoid subfamily of Formicidae: Moreau, Bell, <i>et al.</i> 2006: 102.
Ecitoninae as formicoid dorylomorph subfamily of Formicidae: Brady, Schultz, <i>et al.</i> 2006: 18173; Ward, 2007C PDF: 555.
Subfamily and tribe Ecitonini references
{ref 124599}: 765 (diagnosis); {ref 122380}: 23, 24 (tribes & genera keys); {ref 124696}: 15 (diagnosis, genera key, catalogue); {ref 130044}: 138, 558 (diagnosis, North America genera); {ref 124997}: 240 (synoptic classification); {ref 125413}: 312 (Argentina genera, key); {ref 133015}: 634 (genera key); {ref 122895}: 37 (Brazil catalogue); {ref 128795}: 290 (U.S.A. males); {ref 123910}: 61 (North America); {ref 122904}: 51, 57 (revision of subfamily, tribes key); {ref 122904}: 79 (revision of tribe, genera key); {ref 123216}: 166 (genera, distribution); {ref 129682}: 6 (genera keys); {ref 129906}: 46 (larvae, review & synthesis); {ref 128876}: 392 (synoptic classification); {ref 125615}: 78 (phylogeny); {ref 129683}: 210 (Mexico genera, key); {ref 125605}: 167 (genera key); {ref 122506}: 74 (genera key); {ref 129925}: 17 (U.S.A., Nevada); {ref 122856}: 1357 (diagnosis, morphology, phylogeny); {ref 122994}: 392 (Neotropical fauna, synoptic classification); {ref 122513}: 317 (phylogeny); {ref 126108}: 13 (Neotropical genera, synoptic classification); Lattke, in {ref 126108}: 149 (genera key); {ref 122834}: 38 (diagnosis, synoptic classification, genera key); {ref 122859}: 1039 (census); {ref 122860}: 11 (catalogue); {ref 131493}: 158 (metatibial gland); {ref 131976}: 143 (Colombia genera, key); {ref 141009}: 1239 (venation); Palacio & Fernández, in {ref 133005}: 240 (Neotropical genera key); {ref 130821}: 6575 (phylogeny); {ref 130789}: 34, 142 (diagnosis, synopsis); {ref 130829}: 593 (phylogeny); {ref 140914}: 102 (phylogeny); {ref 140913}: 18173 (phylogeny); {ref 132572}: 555 (classification); {ref 132879}: 1 (morphology, phylogeny).

Identification:

These are the New World "army ants", whose workers can be recognized by the following features: (1) eye reduced to a single ommatidium or absent; (2) clypeus narrow (back to front), so that the antennal insertions are close to the anterior margin of the head; (3) antennal sockets not concealed by frontal carinae; and (4) pygidium simple, unarmed. In addition, the pronotum and mesonotum are fused into a single structure, and the sting is present and functional. The postpetiole may be present or absent. Most of these features, except the simple pygidium, are seen in some species of the subfamily Cerapachyinae (q.v.).

Notes:

Represented in California by a single genus (and about 10 species), the Ecitoninae are most prevalent in the Neotropical region. All are nomadic, predatory army ants.

References:

Bolton (1990e, 1994); Borgmeier (1955); Gotwald (1971, 1982, 1995); Watkins (1972, 1976, 1985).


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