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Subfamily: Formicinae   Latreille, 1809 

Classification:

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2016)

Extant: 11 tribes, 51 genera, 3,048 species, 810 subspecies

Fossil: 31 genera, 195 species, 3 subspecies

Formicariae Latreille, 1809 PDF: 124 . Type-genus: Formica. AntCat AntWiki

Taxonomic history

Subfamily Formicinae references, world
Mayr, 1862 PDF: 651 (genera key); Mayr, 1865 PDF: 6 (diagnosis); Handlirsch, 1907: 859 (*fossil taxa catalogue); Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF: 171 (catalogue); Emery, 1895l PDF: 772 (synoptic classification); Emery, 1896e PDF: 187 (genera key); Wheeler, 1910a: 143 (diagnosis); Forel, 1912j PDF: 88 (tribes key); Forel, 1917 PDF: 248 (synoptic classification); Arnold, 1920a PDF: 551 (diagnosis); Forel, 1921c: 139 (diagnosis); Wheeler, 1922: 210, 691 (diagnosis, tribes key); Emery, 1925d PDF: 2 (diagnosis, tribe key, catalogue); Brown & Nutting, 1950 PDF: 127 (venation, phylogeny); Eisner, 1957 PDF: 465 (proventriculus morphology); Hung & Brown, 1966 PDF: 198 (gastric apex, structure); Bernard, 1967a PDF: 267 (diagnosis); Gotwald, 1969: 120 (mouthparts morphology); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1972a PDF: 41 (diagnosis); Brown, 1973b PDF: 169 (genera, distribution); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1976b PDF: 62 (larvae, review & synthesis); Snelling, 1981: 402 (synoptic classification); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1985b PDF: 258 (synoptic classification); Billen, 1986b: 173 (Dufour's gland); Dlussky & Fedoseeva, 1988: 77 (synoptic classification); Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990: 9 (synoptic classification, genera keys); Agosti, 1991 PDF: 295 (genus group diagnoses); Shattuck, 1992b PDF: 201 (phylogeny); Baroni Urbani, Bolton & Ward, 1992 PDF: 317 (phylogeny); Bolton, 1994: 42 (diagnosis, synoptic classification, genera keys); Bolton, 1995a PDF: 1039 (census); Bolton, 1995b: 11 (catalogue); Wenseleers, Schoeters, <i>et al.</i> 1998: 121 (cloacal gland); Dlussky & Rasnitsyn, 2003 PDF: 417 (diagnosis for impression fossils); Bolton, 2003 PDF: 20, 93 (diagnosis, synopsis); Brady, Schultz, <i>et al.</i> 2006: 18173 (phylogeny); Moreau, Bell, <i>et al.</i> 2006: 102 (phylogeny); Keller, 2011 PDF: 1 (morphology, phylogeny); LaPolla & Fisher, 2014 PDF: (Prenolepis genus-group genera key); Boudinot, 2015 PDF: 51 (male diagnosis); Blaimer, Brady, Schultz, Lloyd, Fisher & Ward, 2015 10.1186/s12862-015-0552-5 PDF: 257 (phylogeny); Fisher & Bolton, 2016: 47 (worker diagnosis)
Regional and national faunas with keys
{ref 127185}: 299 (Austria); {ref 127189}: 25 (Europe); {ref 127226}: 25 (*Baltic Amber); {ref 132986}: 167 (Europe); {ref 124988}: 22 (Switzerland); {ref 128453}: 203 (Britain); {ref 122251}: 126 (Europe & Algeria); {ref 133021}: 225 (Canada); {ref 123936}: 94 (U.S.A. genera); {ref 127508}: 50 (Russia); {ref 125030}: 8 (Madagascar genera); {ref 126777}: 62 (Belgium); {ref 125041}: 220 (India & Sri Lanka); {ref 122766}: 308 (India, Sri Lanka & Burma); {ref 128184}: 100 (Russian Empire); {ref 129630}: 7 (Luxemburg); {ref 122874}: 481 (Belgium); {ref 130044}: 560 (North America genera); {ref 129025}: 80 (Central Europe); {ref 125411}: 35 (Argentina genera); {ref 125260}: 45 (Switzerland); {ref 124216}: 184 (Britain); {ref 124734}: 216 (Italy); {ref 130115}: 590 (U.S.A., Connecticut); {ref 122872}: 17 (France & Belgium); {ref 122328}: 552 (South Africa); {ref 140920}: 134 (Switzerland); {ref 128940}: 61 (Czechoslovakia); {ref 126935}: 160 (Poland); {ref 128985}: 118, 146 (Netherlands); {ref 126255}: 273 (Ukraine); {ref 124250}: 205 (Britain); {ref 127353}: 172 (Dominican Republic); {ref 122356}: 601 (Russia); {ref 127374}: 90 (Israel genera); {ref 126235}: 173 (Ukraine); {ref 128776}: 865 (Puerto Rico); {ref 129033}: 230 (Germany); {ref 126513}: 97 (Central Europe); {ref 126512}: 97 (Central Europe); {ref 123672}: 373 (U.S.A., Utah); {ref 128795}: 309 (U.S.A., males); {ref 123329}: 292 (U.S.A., Iowa); {ref 125920}: 173 (Norway); {ref 125923}: 199 (Norway); {ref 128808}: 599 (U.S.A. genera); {ref 140922}: 181 (Belgium); {ref 123910}: 355 (North America); {ref 126654}: 31 (Argentina); {ref 123147}: 42 (New Zealand); {ref 122956}: 11 (Netherlands); {ref 125667}: 447 (U.S.A., Colorado); {ref 129848}: 160 (U.S.A., North Dakota); {ref 123798}: 104 (Britain); {ref 122660}: 268 (Western Europe); {ref 130430}: 17 (Polynesia); {ref 122979}: 26 (Netherlands); {ref 126357}: 266 (Neotropical, synoptic classification); {ref 122835}: 329 (West Africa genera); {ref 122862}: 3 (Britain); {ref 128906}: 104 (Chile); {ref 129149}: 126 (Kyrghyzstan); {ref 122960}: 126 (Belgium); {ref 126740}: 183 (Switzerland); {ref 122371}: 548 (former European U.S.S.R.); {ref 123763}: 88 (Iberian Peninsula); {ref 123764}: 85 (Fennoscandia & Denmark); {ref 125641}: 32 (South Australia genera); {ref 128469}: 436 (Malta); {ref 127900}: 8 (Southern Africa genera); {ref 122181}: 444 (U.S.A., Utah); {ref 140926}: 106 (Belgium genera); {ref 122506}: 81 (Neotropical genera); {ref 125570}: 263 (Germany); {ref 123767}: 273 (Saudi Arabia); {ref 129925}: 58 (U.S.A., Nevada); {ref 127531}: 68 (Norway); {ref 122149}: 279 (Balkans); {ref 124151}: 124 (Turkmenistan); {ref 126604}: 162 (Far Eastern Russia); {ref 140951}: 10 (Japan); {ref 140927}: 49 (Bulgaria); {ref 128604}: 199 (higher classification, phylogeny); Lattke, in {ref 126108}: 150 (Neotropical genera); {ref 122300}: 76 (Armenia); {ref 130487}: 125 (China genera); {ref 140928}: 332 (Far Eastern Russia); {ref 130931}: 361 (Saudi Arabia); {ref 132274}: 166 (Central Europe); {ref 132350}: 41 (Britain); {ref 130938}: 21 (Portugal); {ref 132308}: 25, 86 (Australia genera, synopsis); {ref 130660}: 68 (northern Australia genera); {ref 132709}: 165 (China, Guangxi); {ref 130994}: 147 (Poland); {ref 130646}: 54 (Turkey genera); {ref 132694}: 425 (Japan genera, males); {ref 131795}: 236 (U.S.A., New Mexico); Palacio & Fernández, in {ref 133005}: 242 (Neotropical genera); {ref 132056}: 187 (North Korea); {ref 140934}: 113 (U.S.A., Ohio); {ref 130924}: 190 (Micronesia); {ref 132271}: 150 (North and Central Europe); {ref 132431}: 202 (Taiwan); {ref 131481}: 30 (south-western Australia genera); {ref 130781}: 17 (Benelux); {ref 133060}: 71 (Philippines genera key).

Distribution:


Afrotropical Region: Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Saint Helena, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe
Australasia Region: Australian Capital Territory, Barrow Island, Lord Howe Island, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, New Zealand, Norfolk Island, Northern Territory, Papua New Guinea, Queensland, Solomon Islands, South Australia, Tasmania, Timor-Leste, Vanuatu, Victoria, Western Australia
Indomalaya Region: Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Borneo, Brunei, Cambodia, Christmas Island, Cocos Islands, Goa, Himachal Pradesh, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Karnataka, Krakatau Islands, Laos, Maharashtra, Malaysia, Maldives, Manipur, Meghalaya, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicobar Island, Orissa, Pakistan, Philippines, Sikkim, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Tamil Nadu, Thailand, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Vietnam, West Bengal
Malagasy Region: Comoros, Europa Island, Juan de Nova Island, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mayotte, Reunion, Seychelles
Nearctic Region: Alabama, Alaska, Alberta, Arizona, Arkansas, British Columbia, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Saskatchewan, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming
Neotropical Region: Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Falkland Islands, French Guiana, Galapagos Islands, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Martinique, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks and Caicos Islands, United States Virgin Islands, Uruguay, Venezuela
Oceania Region: Cook Islands, Fiji, French Polynesia, Guam, Hawaii, Kerguelen Islands, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru, Niue, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Pitcairn, Samoa, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu, Wallis and Futuna Islands
Palearctic Region: Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Alicante, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Baja California, Balearic Islands, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Channel Islands, China, Crete, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Gibraltar, Guernsey, Hungary, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Isle of Man, Israel, Italy, Jammu and Kashmir, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lebanon, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macaronesia, Macedonia, Malta, Monaco, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Netherlands, North Korea, Norway, Oman, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Uzbekistan, Western Sahara, Yemen

Identification:

Formicine ants have a single node-like or scale-like petiole (postpetiole entirely lacking) and the apex of the abdomen has a circular or U-shaped opening, usually fringed with hairs (acidopore). A functional sting is absent, and defense is provided by the ejection of formic acid through the acidopore. If the acidopore is concealed by the pygidium and difficult to discern, then the antennal sockets are located well behind the posterior margin of the clypeus (cf. Dolichoderinae). In most formicines the eyes are well developed (ocelli may also be present), the antennal insertions are not concealed by the frontal carinae, and the promesonotal suture is present and flexible.

Notes:

This is a cosmopolitan group, with about 100 species in California. These include mound-building Formica ants; carpenter ants in the genus Camponotus; and honeypot ants (Myrmecocystus).

References:

Agosti (1991); Bolton (1994); Grimaldi & Agosti (2000); Shattuck (1992b).

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Scientific Name Status Publication Pages ModsID GoogleMaps
Formicinae   Clark, J., 1930, New Formicidae, with notes on some little-known species., Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria 43, pp. 2-25: 11-12, (download) 11-12 6104
Formicinae   Collingwood, C. A., 1979, The Formicidae (Hymenoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark., Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica 8, pp. 1-174: 85-86, (download) 85-86 6175


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