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Subfamily: Formicinae   Latreille, 1809 

Classification:

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2017)

Extant: 11 tribes, 51 genera, 3,050 species, 805 subspecies

Fossil: 31 genera, 196 species, 3 subspecies

Formicariae Latreille, 1809 PDF: 124. Type-genus: Formica. AntCat AntWiki

Taxonomic history

Formicinae as group name: Latreille, 1809 PDF: 124 [Formicariae]; Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau, 1835 PDF: 197 [Formicites]; Nylander, 1846a PDF: 877 [Formicae].
Formicinae as tribe of Formicidae: CANNOT FIND REFERENCE WITH ID 132986 : 167 [Formicidae].
Formicinae as formicomorph subfamily of Formicidae: Bolton, 2003 PDF: 20, 93.
Formicinae as formicoid formicomorph subfamily of Formicidae: Ward, 2007C PDF: 556.
Subfamily Formicinae references, world
Mayr, 1862 PDF: 651 (genera key); Mayr, 1865 PDF: 6 (diagnosis); Handlirsch, 1907: 859 (*fossil taxa catalogue); Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF: 171 (catalogue); Emery, 1895l PDF: 772 (synoptic classification); Emery, 1896e PDF: 187 (genera key); Wheeler, 1910a: 143 (diagnosis); Forel, 1912j PDF: 88 (tribes key); Forel, 1917 PDF: 248 (synoptic classification); Arnold, 1920a PDF: 551 (diagnosis); Forel, 1921c: 139 (diagnosis); Wheeler, 1922: 210, 691 (diagnosis, tribes key); Emery, 1925d PDF: 2 (diagnosis, tribe key, catalogue); Brown & Nutting, 1950 PDF: 127 (venation, phylogeny); Eisner, 1957 PDF: 465 (proventriculus morphology); Hung & Brown, 1966 PDF: 198 (gastric apex, structure); Bernard, 1967a PDF: 267 (diagnosis); Gotwald, 1969: 120 (mouthparts morphology); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1972a PDF: 41 (diagnosis); Brown, 1973b PDF: 169 (genera, distribution); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1976b PDF: 62 (larvae, review & synthesis); Snelling, 1981: 402 (synoptic classification); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1985b PDF: 258 (synoptic classification); Billen, 1986b: 173 (Dufour's gland); Dlussky & Fedoseeva, 1988: 77 (synoptic classification); Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990: 9 (synoptic classification, genera keys); Agosti, 1991 PDF: 295 (genus group diagnoses); Shattuck, 1992b PDF: 201 (phylogeny); Baroni Urbani, Bolton & Ward, 1992 PDF: 317 (phylogeny); Bolton, 1994: 42 (diagnosis, synoptic classification, genera keys); Bolton, 1995a PDF: 1039 (census); Bolton, 1995b: 11 (catalogue); Wenseleers, Schoeters, et al. 1998: 121 (cloacal gland); Dlussky & Rasnitsyn, 2003 PDF: 417 (diagnosis for impression fossils); Bolton, 2003 PDF: 20, 93 (diagnosis, synopsis); Brady, Schultz, et al. 2006: 18173 (phylogeny); Moreau, Bell, et al. 2006: 102 (phylogeny); Keller, 2011 PDF: 1 (morphology, phylogeny); LaPolla & Fisher, 2014 PDF: (Prenolepis genus-group genera key); Boudinot, 2015 PDF: 51 (male diagnosis); Blaimer, Brady, Schultz, Lloyd, Fisher & Ward, 2015 10.1186/s12862-015-0552-5 PDF: 257 (phylogeny); Fisher & Bolton, 2016: 47 (worker diagnosis)
Regional and national faunas with keys
Mayr, 1855 PDF: 299 (Austria); Mayr, 1861 PDF: 25 (Europe); Mayr, 1868c PDF: 25 (*Baltic Amber); CANNOT FIND REFERENCE WITH ID 132986 : 167 (Europe); Forel, 1874 PDF: 22 (Switzerland); Saunders, 1880 PDF: 203 (Britain); André, 1882a: 126 (Europe & Algeria); Provancher, 1887: 225 (Canada); Cresson, 1887 PDF: 94 (U.S.A. genera); Nasonov, 1889: 50 (Russia); Forel, 1891c PDF: 8 (Madagascar genera); Lameere, 1892: 62 (Belgium); Forel, 1892k PDF: 220 (India & Sri Lanka); Bingham, 1903 PDF: 308 (India, Sri Lanka & Burma); Ruzsky, 1905b: 100 (Russian Empire); Wasmann, 1906 PDF: 7 (Luxemburg); Bondroit, 1910 PDF: 481 (Belgium); Wheeler, 1910a: 560 (North America genera); Stitz, 1914: 80 (Central Europe); Gallardo, 1915 PDF: 35 (Argentina genera); Forel, 1915d: 45 (Switzerland); Donisthorpe, 1915f: 184 (Britain); Emery, 1916a PDF: 216 (Italy); Wheeler, 1916r: 590 (U.S.A., Connecticut); Bondroit, 1918 PDF: 17 (France & Belgium); Arnold, 1920a PDF: 552 (South Africa); Kutter, 1920b: 134 (Switzerland); Soudek, 1922b PDF: 61 (Czechoslovakia); Lomnicki, 1925a PDF: 160 (Poland); Stärcke, 1926: 118, 146 (Netherlands); Karavaiev, 1927d: 273 (Ukraine); Donisthorpe, 1927c: 205 (Britain); Menozzi & Russo, 1930 PDF: 172 (Dominican Republic); Arnol'di, 1933a: 601 (Russia); Menozzi, 1933b PDF: 90 (Israel genera); Karavaiev, 1936: 173 (Ukraine); Smith, 1937 PDF: 865 (Puerto Rico); Stitz, 1939: 230 (Germany); Kratochvíl, 1941b: 97 (Central Europe); Novák & Sadil, 1941 PDF: 97 (Central Europe); Cole, 1942 PDF: 373 (U.S.A., Utah); Smith, 1943e PDF: 309 (U.S.A., males); Buren, 1944a PDF: 292 (U.S.A., Iowa); Holgersen, 1943c: 173 (Norway); Holgersen, 1944a: 199 (Norway); Smith, 1947f PDF: 599 (U.S.A. genera); Boven, 1947: 181 (Belgium); Creighton, 1950a PDF: 355 (North America); Kusnezov, 1956a PDF: 31 (Argentina); Brown, 1958h PDF: 42 (New Zealand); Boven, 1959: 11 (Netherlands); Gregg, 1963: 447 (U.S.A., Colorado); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1963: 160 (U.S.A., North Dakota); Collingwood, 1964b PDF: 104 (Britain); Bernard, 1967a PDF: 268 (Western Europe); Wilson & Taylor, 1967b PDF: 17 (Polynesia); Boven, 1970b: 26 (Netherlands); Kempf, 1972b PDF: 266 (Neotropical, synoptic classification); Bolton, 1973a PDF: 329 (West Africa genera); Bolton & Collingwood, 1975: 3 (Britain); Snelling & Hunt, 1975 PDF: 104 (Chile); Tarbinsky, 1976 PDF: 126 (Kyrghyzstan); Boven, 1977 PDF: 126 (Belgium); Kutter, 1977c: 183 (Switzerland); Arnol'di & Dlussky, 1978: 548 (former European U.S.S.R.); Collingwood, 1978 PDF: 88 (Iberian Peninsula); Collingwood, 1979 PDF: 85 (Fennoscandia & Denmark); Greenslade, 1979: 32 (South Australia genera); Schembri & Collingwood, 1981 PDF: 436 (Malta); Prins, 1983 PDF: 8 (Southern Africa genera); Allred, 1982: 444 (U.S.A., Utah); Verhaeghe, Deligne, et al., 1984: 106 (Belgium genera); Baroni Urbani, 1984 PDF: 81 (Neotropical genera); Gösswald, 1985: 263 (Germany); Collingwood, 1985 PDF: 273 (Saudi Arabia); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1986g PDF: 58 (U.S.A., Nevada); Nilsson & Douwes, 1987: 68 (Norway); Agosti & Collingwood, 1987b PDF: 279 (Balkans); Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990 PDF: 124 (Turkmenistan); Kupyanskaya, 1990a: 162 (Far Eastern Russia); Morisita, Kubota, Onoyama, et al., 1991: 10 (Japan); Atanasov & Dlussky, 1992: 49 (Bulgaria); Shattuck, 1992b PDF: 199 (higher classification, phylogeny); Lattke, in Jaffe, 1993: 150 (Neotropical genera); Arakelian, 1994 PDF: 76 (Armenia); Wu & Wang, 1995a: 125 (China genera); Kupyanskaya, 1995: 332 (Far Eastern Russia); Collingwood & Agosti, 1996 PDF: 361 (Saudi Arabia); Seifert, 1996B: 166 (Central Europe); Skinner & Allen, 1996: 41 (Britain); Collingwood & Prince, 1998: 21 (Portugal); Shattuck, 1999: 25, 86 (Australia genera, synopsis); Andersen, 2000: 68 (northern Australia genera); Zhou, 2001A PDF: 165 (China, Guangxi); Czechowski, Radchenko & Czechowska, 2002 PDF: 147 (Poland); Aktaç & Radchenko, 2002: 54 (Turkey genera); Yoshimura & Onoyama, 2002B PDF: 425 (Japan genera, males); Mackay & MacKay, 2002 PDF: 236 (U.S.A., New Mexico); Palacio & Fernández, in CANNOT FIND REFERENCE WITH ID 133005 : 242 (Neotropical genera); Radchenko, 2005B PDF: 187 (North Korea); Coovert, 2005: 113 (U.S.A., Ohio); Clouse, 2007B: 190 (Micronesia); Seifert, 2007: 150 (North and Central Europe); Terayama, 2009 PDF: 202 (Taiwan); Heterick, 2009 PDF: 30 (south-western Australia genera); Boer, 2010: 17 (Benelux); General & Alpert, 2012 PDF: 71 (Philippines genera key).

Distribution:


Afrotropical Region: Amhara, Angola, Anseba, Arusha, Bas Congo, Benguela, Benin, Bombali, Botswana, Bundibugyo, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Centre-Sud, Chad, Congo, Cross River, Democratic Republic of Congo, Dire-Dawa, Djibouti, Eastern, Eastern Cape, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Erongo, Estuaire, Ethiopia, Free State, Gabon, Gambia, Gauteng, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Huambo, Ivory Coast, Kabarole, Kenya, Kibale NP, Kilifi, Kilimanjaro, Korthogo, KwaZulu-Natal, Leribe, Lesotho, Liberia, Limpopo, Lindi, Littoral, Malawi, Mali, Matabeleland North, Mauritania, Morogoro, Mozambique, Mpumalanga, Mtwara, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, North West, Northeast Tanzania, Northern Cape, Nyanza, Ogooue-Ivindo, Ogooue-Maritime, Otjozondjupa, Prefecture Sangha-Mbaéré, Pwani, Ravuma, Rift Valley, Ruvuma, Rwanda, Saint Helena, Sao Tome, Sao Tome and Principe, Semien Keih-Bahri, Senegal, Serowe, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Southern, Sud, Sud-Ouest, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanga, Tanzania, Tete, Togo, Transvaal, Uganda, Unguja, Upper Nile, Wakiso, Wakiso District, West Darfur, West Uganda, Western Cape, Western Uganda, Woleu-Ntem, Zambia, Zimbabwe
Antarctica Region: Kerguelen Islands
Australasia Region: Auckland, Australian Capital Territory, Barrow Island, Bay of Plenty, Bismarch Archipelago, Bougainville, Central, Chimbu, Choiseul, East N. Britain, East New Britain, East Sepik, Easten Highlands, Eastern Highlands, Guadalcanal, Gulf, Kevasop, Lord Howe Island, Madang, Makira-Ulawa, Malaita, Manus, Milne Bay, Morobe, N Solomons, National Capital, New Britain, New Caledonia, New Georgia, New Guinea, New Ireland, New South Wales, New Zealand, Nggela, Norfolk Island, North Island, Northern, Northern Territory, Papua New Guinea, Queensland, Rennell Is., Roviana, Russell Is., San Cristobal, San Cristobal Is., Sandaun, Santa Cruz Gp., Santa Cruz Islands, Santa Ysabel Is. [Santa Isabel Is.], Solomon Islands, South Australia, Southern Highlands, Tasmania, Timor-Leste, Vanuatu, Victoria, West New Britain, West Sepik, Western, Western Australia, Western Highlands, unknown District PNG, unknown_Australia
Indomalaya Region: Aceh, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bago, Bali, Bangladesh, Bengkulu, Bhutan, Borneo, Brunei, Cambodia, Central Java, Chiang Mai, Chonburi, Christmas Island, Cocos Islands, Goa, Gorontalo, Guangdong, Himachal Pradesh, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Irian Jaya, Jambi, Java, Johor, Johore, Kalimantan, Karnataka, Kedah, Krakatau Islands, Laguna, Lampung, Laos, Leyte, Luzon, Madras, Maharashtra, Malacca, Malaysia, Maldives, Maluku, Maluku Utara, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mindanao, Misamis Oriental, Moluccas, Myanmar, National Capital Region, Negeri Sembilan, Negros Oriental, Nepal, Nicobar Island, North Sumatra, North Western, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Okinawa, Orissa, Pahang, Pakistan, Papua, Penang, Perak, Philippines, Sabah, Sabaragamuwa, Samar, Sarawak, Satun, Selangor, Shan, Sikkim, Singapore, Siquijor, South Sumatra, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sulawesi Barat, Sulawesi Selatan, Sulawesi Tengah, Sulawesi Utara, Sumatra, Sumbawa, Taiwan, Tamil Nadu, Temburong, Temburong Dist., Thailand, Timor, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Uva, Viet Nam, Vietnam, W. Kalimantan, West Bengal, West Java, West Papua, West Sumatra, Yunnan
Malagasy Region: Anjouan, Antananarivo, Antsiranana, Comoros, Diego-Suarez, Europa Island, Fianarantsoa, Grande Comore, Juan de Nova Island, Madagascar, Mahajanga, Majunga, Mauritius, Mayotte, Mohéli, Reunion, Rodrigues, Saint-Denis, Saint-Paul, Seychelles, Toamasina, Toliara, Tulear
Nearctic Region: Alabama, Alaska, Alberta, Arizona, Arkansas, Baja California, British Columbia, California, Chihuahua, Colorado, Connecticut, D.C., Delaware, District of Columbia, Durango, Florida, Georgia, Hidalgo, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Line Islands, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Nova Scotia, Nuevo Leon, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Puebla, Saskatchewan, Sonora, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Zacatecas
Neotropical Region: Ahuachapán, Alajuela, Alta Verapaz, Alto Paraguay, Amambay, Amazonas, Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Antioquia, Aragua, Argentina, Aruba, Atlántida, Bahamas, Bahia, Baja California Norte, Baja California Sur, Baja Verapaz, Barbados, Barinas, Basse-Terre, Belize, Beni, Bermuda, Bocas del Toro, Bogota D. E., Bolivia, Bolívar, Boquerón, Brazil, British Virgin Islands, Buenos Aires, Caaguazú, Camaguey, Canal Zone, Canindeyú, Cartago, Catamarca, Cayenne, Cayman Islands, Cayo, Chaco, Chiapas, Chile, Chontales, Chubut, Coahuila, Cochabamba, Colombia, Colon, Comayagua, Cordillera, Corrientes, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cundinamarca, Cusco, Demerara, Distrito Federal, Distrito Nacional, Dominican Republic, Duarte, Ecuador, El Progreso, El Salvador, Escuintla, Espírito Santo, Estelí, Formosa, Francisco Morazán, French Guiana, Galapagos Islands, Gracias a Dios, Granada, Grande-Terre, Granma, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guairá, Guanacaste, Guatemala, Guayas, Guerrero, Guyana, Haiti, Hato Mayor, Heredia, Honduras, Huila, Huánuco, Islas de Bahia, Islas de la Bahía, Itapúa, Izabal, Jalisco, Jamaica, Jinotega, Jujuy, Junin, La Guajira, La Libertad, La Paz, La Unión, Lara, Lempira, Loreto, Los Rios, Madre de Dios, Madriz, Magdalena, Managua, Maria Trinidad Sanchez, Martinique, Masaya, Matagalpa, Matagalpha, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Mendoza, Michoacan, Minas Gerais, Miranda, Misiones, Morelos, Napo, Nayarit, Neembucú, New Providence, Nicaragua, Nueva Segovia, Oaxaca, Ocotopeque, Olancho, Orellana, Ouest, Pachitea, Panama, Panamá, Para, Paraguarí, Paraguay, Pedernales, Peru, Petén, Pichincha, Pinar del Río, Pte. Hayes, Puerto Rico, Puntarenas, Quintana Roo, Región Autónoma del Atlántico Norte, Región Autónoma del Atlántico Sur, Retalhuleu, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio Negro, Rio de Janeiro, Rupununi, Sacatepéquez, Saint Andrew, Saint Ann, Saint Elizabeth, Saint James, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Salta, San José, San Paolo, San Pedro, San Salvador, Santa Catarina, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santiago, Santiago de Cuba, Sao Paulo, Sololá, Sonsonate, St. Andrew Parrish, Suchitepéquez, Suriname, Tarapacá, Trelawny, Trinidad and Tobago, Trujillo, Tucumán, Turks and Caicos Islands, United States Virgin Islands, Uruguay, Usulután, Valle de Cauca, Valparaíso, Venezuela, Veracruz, Veraguas, West Demerara, Westmorland, Yucatán, Zacapa
Oceania Region: Arno, Ba, Bua, Cakaudrove, Cook Islands, Fiji, French Polynesia, Guam, Hawaii, Jaluit, Kadavu, Kiribati, Lau, Lomaiviti, Macuata, Majuro, Marakei, Marquesas Islands, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Naitaisri, Naitasiri, Namosi, Nauru, Navosa, Ngatpang, Niue, Niue Is., Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Palau Islands, Peleliu, Pitcairn, Pohnpei, Ponape, Ra, Rewa, SW Carolines, Samoa, Sera, Serua, South Cook, Tahiti, Tailevu, Taveuni, Tinian, Tokelau, Tonga, Truk Islands, Tuamasaga, Tuvalu, Vanua Levu, Viti Levu, Vuda, W Carolines, WC Carolines, Wainikeli, Wallis and Futuna, Wallis and Futuna Islands, Yap, Yap Group
Palearctic Region: Aargau, Abruzzi, Aegean Islands, Afghanistan, Al Bahah, Albania, Alborz, Algeria, Alicante, Amur, Andalusia, Andorra, Antalya, Aquitaine, Ar Riyad, Armenia, Attica, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Baleares, Balearic Islands, Barcelona, Basel Land, Belarus, Belgium, Blagoevgrad province, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brandenburg, Brussel Hoofdstedelijk G, Bukhara, Bulgaria, Bulgen, Burgas, Burgundy, Bushehr, Calabria, Campania, Canary Islands, Catalonia, Central Anatolia Region, Central Greece, Central Macedonia, Channel Islands, China, Corsica, Crete, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dobrich, Dodecanese, Dolnoslaskie, Egypt, Estonia, Estremadura, Fars, Fergana, Finland, France, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Fukuoka, Geneva, Georgia, Germany, Ghazvin, Gibraltar, Girona, Golestan, Graubünden, Greece, Guernsey, Gunma, Hainaut, Hokkaido, Hovedstaden, Huelva, Huesca, Hungary, Hyogo, Ionian Islands, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Isfahan, Ishikari, Isle of Man, Israel, Issyk-Kul, Italy, Jammu and Kashmir, Japan, Jiangsu, Jordan, Kairouan, Kamchatka, Kanagawa, Kazakhstan, Kerman, Konya, Kumamoto, Kuwait, Kymenlaakso, Kyrgyzstan, Kyustendil province, Languedoc-Roussillon, Latvia, Lazio, Lebanon, Libya, Liechtenstein, Liguria, Limburg, Limousin, Lithuania, Lladorre, Lombardia, Luxembourg, Macaronesia, Macedonia, Madeira, Madeira Islands, Malta, Markazi, Mazandaran, Mid-Pyrénées, Midtjylland, Miyazaki, Monaco, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Murcia, Málaga, Møn, Nagano, Nagato, Namur, Nara, Netherlands, Nicosia, North Aegean, North Korea, Norway, Nové Zámky District, Nuristan, Oman, Oost-Vlaanderen, Osaka, Paphos, Parma, Peloponnese, Piemonte, Poland, Portugal, Praha, Puglia, Qatar, Republic of Moldova, Rhodes, Riyadh, Romania, Russia, Ryazan, Saitama, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Saxony, Scotland, Serbia, Shaanxi, Shizuoka, Sicily, Sjaelland, Skåne, Slovakia, Slovenia, Smoljan, Smolyan, Sofia, Sofia province, South Aegean, South Moravia, South Tyrol, Spain, Sterea Ellas, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Teruel, Thessaloniki, Thessaly, Tibet, Tokyo, Toscana, Trieste, Tunisia, Turin, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tyva, Ukraine, Umbria, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Uzbekistan, Valais, Vaud, Vidin, Vlaams-Brabant, Voronezh, Västra Götaland, West-Vlaanderen, Western Finland, Western Sahara, Yamaguchi, Yemen, Zanjan, Zaragoza, Zurich, Île-de-France

Identification:

Formicine ants have a single node-like or scale-like petiole (postpetiole entirely lacking) and the apex of the abdomen has a circular or U-shaped opening, usually fringed with hairs (acidopore). A functional sting is absent, and defense is provided by the ejection of formic acid through the acidopore. If the acidopore is concealed by the pygidium and difficult to discern, then the antennal sockets are located well behind the posterior margin of the clypeus (cf. Dolichoderinae). In most formicines the eyes are well developed (ocelli may also be present), the antennal insertions are not concealed by the frontal carinae, and the promesonotal suture is present and flexible.

Notes:

This is a cosmopolitan group, with about 100 species in California. These include mound-building Formica ants; carpenter ants in the genus Camponotus; and honeypot ants (Myrmecocystus).

References:

Agosti (1991); Bolton (1994); Grimaldi & Agosti (2000); Shattuck (1992b).

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Scientific Name Status Publication Pages ModsID GoogleMaps
Formicinae   Clark, J., 1930, New Formicidae, with notes on some little-known species., Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria 43, pp. 2-25: 11-12, (download) 11-12 6104
Formicinae   Collingwood, C. A., 1979, The Formicidae (Hymenoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark., Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica 8, pp. 1-174: 85-86, (download) 85-86 6175


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