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Subfamily: Formicinae   Latreille, 1809 


Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2016)

Extant: 11 tribes, 51 genera, 3,033 species, 831 subspecies

Fossil: 30 genera, 196 species, 2 subspecies

Formicariae Latreille, 1809 PDF: 124 . Type-genus: Formica. AntCat AntWiki

Taxonomic history

Formicinae as group name: Latreille, 1809 PDF: 124 [Formicariae]; Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau, 1835 PDF: 197 [Formicites]; Nylander, 1846a PDF: 877 [Formicae].
Formicinae as tribe of Formicidae: {ref 132986}: 167 [Formicidae].
Formicinae as formicomorph subfamily of Formicidae: Bolton, 2003 PDF: 20, 93.
Formicinae as formicoid subfamily of Formicidae: Brady, Schultz, et al. 2006: 18173; Moreau, Bell, et al. 2006: 102.
Formicinae as formicoid formicomorph subfamily of Formicidae: Ward, 2007C PDF: 556.
Subfamily Formicinae references, world
Mayr, 1862Mayr, G. 1862. Myrmecologische Studien. Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 12:649-776. [1862] PDF 127190: 651 (genera key); Mayr, 1865Mayr, G. 1865. Formicidae. In: Novara Expedition 1865. Reise der Österreichischen Fregatte "Novara" um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859. Zoologischer Theil. Bd. II. Abt. 1. Wien: K. Gerold's Sohn, 119 pp. [1865-12-14] PDF 127193: 6 (diagnosis); Handlirsch, 1907Handlirsch, A. 1907. Die fossilen Insekten und die Phylogenie der rezenten Formen. Ein Handbuch für Paläontologen und Zoologen. Lieferung 6. Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann, pp. 801-960. [1907-06] 125751: 859 (*fossil taxa catalogue); Dalla Torre, 1893Dalla Torre, K. W. 1893. Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus. Vol. 7. Formicidae (Heterogyna). Leipzig: W. Engelmann, 289 pp. [1893] PDF 124002: 171 (catalogue); Emery, 1895lEmery, C. 1895l. Die Gattung Dorylus Fab. und die systematische Eintheilung der Formiciden. Zoologische Jahrbücher. Abteilung für Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der Tiere 8:685-778. [1895-10-18] PDF 124599: 772 (synoptic classification); Emery, 1896eEmery, C. 1896e. Clef analytique des genres de la famille des Formicides, pour la détermination des neutres. Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 40:172-189. [1896-05-02>] PDF 124609: 187 (genera key); Wheeler, 1910aWheeler, W. M. 1910a. Ants: their structure, development and behavior. New York: Columbia University Press, xxv + 663 pp. [1910-03] 130044: 143 (diagnosis); Forel, 1912jForel, A. 1912j. Formicides néotropiques. Part VI. 5me sous-famille Camponotinae Forel. Mémoires de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 20:59-92. [1912-06-20] PDF 125232: 88 (tribes key); Forel, 1917Forel, A. 1917. Cadre synoptique actuel de la faune universelle des fourmis. Bulletin de la Société Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles 51:229-253. [1917-03-08] PDF 124997: 248 (synoptic classification); Arnold, 1920aArnold, G. 1920a. A monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. Part IV. Myrmicinae. Annals of the South African Museum 14:403-578. [1920-04-16] PDF 122328: 551 (diagnosis); Forel, 1921cForel, A. 1921c. Le monde social des fourmis comparé à celui de l'homme. Tome 1. Genèse, formes, anatomie, classification. géographie, fossiles. Genève: Librairie Kundig, xiv + 192 pp. [1921] 125267: 139 (diagnosis); Wheeler, 1922Wheeler, W. M. 1922. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. New York: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 1139. 133015: 210, 691 (diagnosis, tribes key); Emery, 1925dEmery, C. 1925d. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Formicinae. Genera Insectorum 183:1-302. [1925-12-31] PDF 124775: 2 (diagnosis, tribe key, catalogue); Brown & Nutting, 1950Brown, W. L., Jr.; Nutting, W. L. 1950. Wing venation and the phylogeny of the Formicidae. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 75:113-132. [1950-01-04] PDF 123254: 127 (venation, phylogeny); Eisner, 1957Eisner, T. 1957. A comparative morphological study of the proventriculus of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 116:439-490. [1957-07] PDF 124480: 465 (proventriculus morphology); Hung & Brown, 1966Hung, A. C. F.; Brown, W. L., Jr. 1966. Structure of gastric apex as a subfamily character of the Formicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of the New York Entomological Society 74:198-200. [1966-12-29] PDF 126021: 198 (gastric apex, structure); Bernard, 1967aBernard, F. 1967a ("1968"). Faune de l'Europe et du Bassin Méditerranéen. 3. Les fourmis (Hymenoptera Formicidae) d'Europe occidentale et septentrionale. Paris: Masson, 411 pp. [1967-11] PDF 122660: 267 (diagnosis); Gotwald, 1969: 120 (mouthparts morphology); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1972aWheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1972a. The subfamilies of Formicidae. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 74:35-45. [1972-03-28] PDF 129891: 41 (diagnosis); Brown, 1973bBrown, W. L., Jr. 1973b. A comparison of the Hylean and Congo-West African rain forest ant faunas. Pp. 161-185 in: Meggers, B. J.; Ayensu, E. S.; Duckworth, W. D. (eds.) 1973. Tropical forest ecosystems in Africa and South America: a comparative review. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, viii + 350 pp. [1973-01] PDF 123216: 169 (genera, distribution); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1976bWheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1976b. Ant larvae: review and synthesis. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Washington 7:1-108. [1976] PDF 129906: 62 (larvae, review & synthesis); Snelling, 1981Snelling, R. R. 1981. Systematics of social Hymenoptera. Pp. 369-453 in: Hermann, H. R. (ed.) 1981. Social insects. Volume 2. New York: Academic Press, xiii + 491 pp. [1981] [1981] 128876: 402 (synoptic classification); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1985bWheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1985b. A simplified conspectus of the Formicidae. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 111:255-264. [1985-07-30] PDF 129918: 258 (synoptic classification); Billen, 1986bBillen, J. P. J. 1986b. Comparative morphology and ultrastructure of the Dufour gland in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Entomologia Generalis 11:165-181. [1986-05-30] 122738: 173 (Dufour's gland); Dlussky & Fedoseeva, 1988Dlussky, G. M.; Fedoseeva, E. B. 1988. Origin and early stages of evolution in ants. [In Russian.]. Pp. 70-144 in: Ponomarenko, A. G. (ed.) 1988. Cretaceous biocenotic crisis and insect evolution. [In Russian.]. Moskva: Nauka, 232 pp. [1987-12-22>] 124165: 77 (synoptic classification); Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990Hölldobler, B.; Wilson, E. O. 1990. The ants. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, xii + 732 pp. 122852: 9 (synoptic classification, genera keys); Agosti, 1991Agosti, D. 1991. Revision of the oriental ant genus Cladomyrma, with an outline of the higher classification of the Formicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Systematic Entomology 16:293-310. [1991-07] PDF 122139: 295 (genus group diagnoses); Shattuck, 1992bShattuck, S. O. 1992b. Higher classification of the ant subfamilies Aneuretinae, Dolichoderinae and Formicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Systematic Entomology 17:199-206. [1992-04] PDF 128604: 201 (phylogeny); Baroni Urbani, Bolton & Ward, 1992Baroni Urbani, C.; Bolton, B.; Ward, P. S. 1992. The internal phylogeny of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Systematic Entomology 17:301-329. [1992-10] PDF 122513: 317 (phylogeny); Bolton, 1994Bolton, B. 1994. Identification guide to the ant genera of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 222 pp. [1994-07-25] 122834: 42 (diagnosis, synoptic classification, genera keys); Bolton, 1995aBolton, B. 1995a. A taxonomic and zoogeographical census of the extant ant taxa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of Natural History 29:1037-1056. [1995-08] PDF 122859: 1039 (census); Bolton, 1995bBolton, B. 1995b. A new general catalogue of the ants of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 504 pp. [1995-10] 122860: 11 (catalogue); Wenseleers, Schoeters, et al. 1998: 121 (cloacal gland); Dlussky & Rasnitsyn, 2003Dlussky, G. M.; Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2003 ("2002"). Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Formation Green River and some other Middle Eocene deposits of North America. Russian Entomological Journal 11:411-436. [2003-06] PDF 131135: 417 (diagnosis for impression fossils); Bolton, 2003Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and classification of Formicidae. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 71:1-370. [2003-11-10] PDF 130789: 20, 93 (diagnosis, synopsis); Brady, Schultz, et al. 2006: 18173 (phylogeny); Moreau, Bell, et al. 2006: 102 (phylogeny); Keller, 2011Keller, R. A. 2011. A phylogenetic analysis of ant morphology (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with special reference to the poneromorph subfamilies. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 355:1-90. [2011-08-10] PDF 132879: 1 (morphology, phylogeny); LaPolla & Fisher, 2014LaPolla, J. S.; Fisher, B. L. 2014. Then there were five: a reexamination of the ant genus Paratrechina (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). ZooKeys 422:35-48. PDF 142640: (Prenolepis genus-group genera key); Boudinot, 2015Boudinot, B. E. 2015. Contributions to the knowledge of Formicidae (Hymenoptera, Aculeata): a new diagnosis of the family, the first global male-based key to subfamilies, and a treatment of early branching lineages. European Journal of Taxonomy 120:1-62. PDF 142740: 51 (male diagnosis); Blaimer, Brady, Schultz, Lloyd, Fisher & Ward, 2015Blaimer, B. B.; Brady, S. G.; Schultz, T. R.; Lloyd, M. W.; Fisher, B. L.; Ward, P. S. 2015. Phylogenomic methods outperform traditional multi-locus approaches in resolving deep evolutionary history: a case study of formicine ants. BMC Evolutionary Biology 15:257. 10.1186/s12862-015-0552-5 PDF 142850: 257 (phylogeny)
Regional and national faunas with keys
Mayr, 1855Mayr, G. 1855. Formicina austriaca. Beschreibung der bisher im österreichischen Kaiserstaate aufgefundenen Ameisen, nebst Hinzufügung jener in Deutschland, in der Schweiz und in Italien vorkommenden Arten. Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Vereins in Wien 5:273-478. [1855] PDF 127185: 299 (Austria); Mayr, 1861Mayr, G. 1861. Die europäischen Formiciden. Nach der analytischen Methode bearbeitet. Wien: C. Gerolds Sohn, 80 pp. [1861] PDF 127189: 25 (Europe); Mayr, 1868cMayr, G. 1868c. Die Ameisen des baltischen Bernsteins. Beiträge zur Naturkunde Preussens 1:1-102. [1868] PDF 127226: 25 (*Baltic Amber); {ref 132986}: 167 (Europe); Forel, 1874Forel, A. 1874. Les fourmis de la Suisse. Systématique, notices anatomiques et physiologiques, architecture, distribution géographique, nouvelles expériences et observations de moeurs. Neue Denkschriften der Allgemeinen Schweizerischen Gesellschaft für die Gesammten Naturwissenschaften 26:1-452. [1874] PDF 124988: 22 (Switzerland); Saunders, 1880Saunders, E. 1880. Synopsis of the British Heterogyna and fossorial Hymenoptera. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1880:201-304. [1880-12-31] PDF 128453: 203 (Britain); André, 1882aAndré, Ern. 1882a. Les fourmis. [part]. Pp. 49-80 in: André, Edm. 1882. 1881-1886. Species des Hyménoptères d'Europe et d'Algérie. Tome Deuxième. Beaune: Edmond André, 919 + 48 pp. [1882-01] 122251}: 126 (Europe & Algeria); Provancher, 1887Provancher, L. 1887. Fam. X. - Les Formicides. Dummy reference. Pp. 224-249 in: Provancher, L. 1887. 1885-1889. Additions et corrections au Volume II de la Faune entomologique du Canada, traitant des Hyménoptères. Québec: C. Darveau, 477 pp. 133021: 225 (Canada); Cresson, 1887Cresson, E. T. 1887. Synopsis of the families and genera of the Hymenoptera of America, north of Mexico, together with a catalogue of the described species, and bibliography. Transactions of the American Entomological Society, Suppl. Vol. 1887:1-351. [1887] PDF 123936: 94 (U.S.A. genera); Nasonov, 1889Nasonov, N. V. 1889. Contribution to the natural history of the ants primarily of Russia. 1. Contribution to the ant fauna of Russia. [In Russian.]. Izvestiya Imperatorskago Obshchestva Lyubitelei Estestvoznaniya Antropologii i Etnografii pri Imperatorskom Moskovskom Universitete 58:1-78. [1889] 127508: 50 (Russia); Forel, 1891cForel, A. 1891c. Les Formicides. [part]. In: Grandidier, A. 1891. Histoire physique, naturelle, et politique de Madagascar. Volume XX. Histoire naturelle des Hyménoptères. Deuxième partie (28e fascicule). Paris: Hachette et Cie, v + 237 pp. [1891] PDF 125030: 8 (Madagascar genera); Lameere, 1892Lameere, A. 1892. Note sur les fourmis de la Belgique. Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 36:61-69. [1892-02-06>] 126777: 62 (Belgium); Forel, 1892kForel, A. 1892k. Les Formicides de l'Empire des Indes et de Ceylan. Part I. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 7:219-245. [1892-10-01] PDF 125041: 220 (India & Sri Lanka); Bingham, 1903Bingham, C. T. 1903. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera, Vol. II. Ants and Cuckoo-wasps. London: Taylor and Francis, 506 pp. [1903] PDF 122766: 308 (India, Sri Lanka & Burma); Ruzsky, 1905bRuzsky, M. 1905b. The ants of Russia. (Formicariae Imperii Rossici). Systematics, geography and data on the biology of Russian ants. Part I. [In Russian.]. Trudy Obshchestva Estestvoispytatelei pri Imperatorskom Kazanskom Universitete 38(4-6):1-800. [1905] 128184: 100 (Russian Empire); Wasmann, 1906Wasmann, E. 1906. Zur Kenntniss der Ameisen und Ameisengäste von Luxemburg. Archives. Institut Grand-Ducal de Luxembourg (n.s.)1(1/2):104-124. [1906-06] PDF 129630: 7 (Luxemburg); Bondroit, 1910Bondroit, J. 1910 ("1909"). Les fourmis de Belgique. Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 53:479-500. [1910-01-05] PDF 122874: 481 (Belgium); Wheeler, 1910aWheeler, W. M. 1910a. Ants: their structure, development and behavior. New York: Columbia University Press, xxv + 663 pp. [1910-03] 130044: 560 (North America genera); Stitz, 1914Stitz, H. 1914. Die Ameisen (Formicidae) Mitteleuropas, insbesondere Deutschlands. Pp. 1-111 in: Schröder, C. (ed.) 1914. Die Insekten Mitteleuropas insbesondere Deutschlands. Band II, Hymenopteren, 2. Teil. Stuttgart: Franckh'sche Verlagshandlung, 256 pp. [1914] 129025: 80 (Central Europe); Gallardo, 1915Gallardo, A. 1915. Observaciones sobre algunas hormigas de la República Argentina. Anales del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Buenos Aires 27:1-35. [1915-06-03] PDF 125411: 35 (Argentina genera); Forel, 1915dForel, A. 1915d. Fauna insectorum helvetiae. Hymenoptera. Formicidae. Die Ameisen der Schweiz. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft 12(Beilage):1-77. [1915] 125260: 45 (Switzerland); Donisthorpe, 1915fDonisthorpe, H. 1915f. British ants, their life-history and classification. Plymouth: Brendon & Son Ltd., xv + 379 pp. [1915] 124216: 184 (Britain); Emery, 1916aEmery, C. 1916a ("1915"). Fauna entomologica italiana. I. Hymenoptera.-Formicidae. Bullettino della Società Entomologica Italiana 47:79-275. [1916-11-30] PDF 124734: 216 (Italy); Wheeler, 1916rWheeler, W. M. 1916r. Formicoidea. Formicidae. Pp. 577-601 in: Viereck, H. L. 1916. Guide to the insects of Connecticut. Part III. The Hymenoptera, or wasp-like insects, of Connecticut. Connecticut State Geological and Natural History Survey. Bulletin 22:1-824. [1916] 130115: 590 (U.S.A., Connecticut); Bondroit, 1918Bondroit, J. 1918. Les fourmis de France et de Belgique. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 87:1-174. [1918-12-24] PDF 122872: 17 (France & Belgium); Arnold, 1920aArnold, G. 1920a. A monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. Part IV. Myrmicinae. Annals of the South African Museum 14:403-578. [1920-04-16] PDF 122328: 552 (South Africa); Kutter, 1920b: 134 (Switzerland); Soudek, 1922bSoudek, S. 1922b. Mravenci. Soustava, zemepisné rozsírení, oekologie a urcovací klíc mravencu zijících na území Ceskoslovenské republiky. Praha: Ceskoslovenská Spolecnost Entomologická, 100 pp. [1922] PDF 128940: 61 (Czechoslovakia); Lomnicki, 1925aLomnicki, J. 1925a ("1924"). Przeglad polskich gatunków rodzaju mrówki (Formica Linné). Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne 3:151-182. [1925-03-15<] PDF 126935: 160 (Poland); Stärcke, 1926Stärcke, A. 1926. Nieuwe Nederlandsche Formiciden (benevens enkele systematische opmerkingen). Entomologische Berichten (Amsterdam) 7:86-97. [1926-05-01] 128985}: 118, 146 (Netherlands); Karavaiev, 1927dKaravaiev, V. 1927d. The ant fauna of Ukraine. [In Ukrainian.]. Zbirnyk Prats' Zoolohichnoho Muzeyu 2:1-52 [= Trudy. Ukrains'ka Akademiya Nauk. Fizichno-Matematichnoho Viddilu 4:247-296]. [1927] 126255: 273 (Ukraine); Donisthorpe, 1927cDonisthorpe, H. 1927c. British ants, their life history and classification (2nd edn.). London: G. Routledge and Sons, xvi + 436 pp. [1927] 124250: 205 (Britain); Menozzi & Russo, 1930Menozzi, C.; Russo, G. 1930. Contributo alla conoscenza della mirmecofauna della Repubblica Dominicana (Antille). Bollettino del Laboratorio di Zoologia Generale e Agraria della Reale Scuola Superiore d'Agricoltura. Portici 24:148-173. PDF 127353: 172 (Dominican Republic); Arnol'di, 1933aArnol'di, K. V. 1933a. Formicidae - ants. [In Russian.]. Pp. 594-605 in: Filip'ev, I. N.; Ogloblin, D. A. (eds.) 1933. Keys to insects. [In Russian.]. Moskva: Ogiz, viii + 820 pp. [1933-12-03>] 122356: 601 (Russia); Menozzi, 1933bMenozzi, C. 1933b. Le formiche della Palestina. Memorie della Società Entomologica Italiana 12:49-113. [1933-06-15] PDF 127374: 90 (Israel genera); Karavaiev, 1936Karavaiev, V. 1936. The fauna of the family Formicidae (ants) of the Ukraine. Part II (conclusion). [In Ukrainian.]. Trudy Instytutu Zoolohii ta Biolohii Ukrains'koi Akademii Nauk. Seriya 1. Pratsi z Systematyky ta Faunistyky 1936:161-316. [1936-05-26>] 126235: 173 (Ukraine); Smith, 1937Smith, M. R. 1937 ("1936"). The ants of Puerto Rico. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico 20:819-875. [1937-01] PDF 128776: 865 (Puerto Rico); Stitz, 1939Stitz, H. 1939. Die Tierwelt Deutschlands und der angrenzenden Meersteile nach ihren Merkmalen und nach ihrer Lebensweise. 37. Theil. Hautflüger oder Hymenoptera. I: Ameisen oder Formicidae. Jena: G. Fischer, 428 pp. [1939] 129033: 230 (Germany); Kratochvíl, 1941bKratochvíl, J. 1941b. [Untitled. New subgenera of Tetramorium, and a new subspecies, Tetramorium ferox silhavyi, attributed to Kratochvíl.]. P. 84 in: Novák, V.; Sadil, J. 1941. Klíc k urcování mravencu strední Evropy se zvlástním zretelem k mravencí zvírene Cech a Moravy. Entomologické Listy 4:65-115. [1941] 126513: 97 (Central Europe); Novák & Sadil, 1941Novák, V.; Sadil, J. 1941. Klíc k urcování mravencu strední Evropy se zvlástním zretelem k mravencí zvírene Cech a Moravy. Entomologické Listy 4:65-115. PDF 126512: 97 (Central Europe); Cole, 1942Cole, A. C., Jr. 1942. The ants of Utah. American Midland Naturalist 28:358-388. [1942-10-13] PDF 123672}: 373 (U.S.A., Utah); Smith, 1943eSmith, M. R. 1943e. A generic and subgeneric synopsis of the male ants of the United States. American Midland Naturalist 30:273-321. [1943-10-22] PDF 128795: 309 (U.S.A., males); Buren, 1944aBuren, W. F. 1944a. A list of Iowa ants. Iowa State College Journal of Science 18:277-312. [1944-04] PDF 123329: 292 (U.S.A., Iowa); Holgersen, 1943cHolgersen, H. 1943c. Bestemmelsestabell over norske maur (Hym., Formicidae). Norsk Entomologisk Tidsskrift 6:164-182. [1943-09-01] 125920: 173 (Norway); Holgersen, 1944aHolgersen, H. 1944a. The ants of Norway (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Nytt Magasin for Naturvidenskapene 84:165-203. [1944-09-08] 125923: 199 (Norway); Smith, 1947fSmith, M. R. 1947f. A generic and subgeneric synopsis of the United States ants, based on the workers. American Midland Naturalist 37:521-647. [1947-07-27] PDF 128808: 599 (U.S.A. genera); Boven, 1947: 181 (Belgium); Creighton, 1950aCreighton, W. S. 1950a. The ants of North America. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 104:1-585. [1950-04] PDF 123910: 355 (North America); Kusnezov, 1956aKusnezov, N. 1956a. Claves para la identificación de las hormigas de la fauna argentina. Idia 104-105:1-56. [1956-09] PDF 126654: 31 (Argentina); Brown, 1958hBrown, W. L., Jr. 1958h. A review of the ants of New Zealand. Acta Hymenopterologica 1:1-50. [1958-07-30] PDF 123147}: 42 (New Zealand); Boven, 1959Boven, J. K. A. 1959. Vliesvleugelige insekten - Hymenoptera VI. Angeldragers (Aculeata). Mieren (Formicidae). Wetenschappelijke Mededelingen. Koninklijke Nederlandse Natuurhistorische Vereniging 30:1-32. [1959-01] 122956}: 11 (Netherlands); Gregg, 1963Gregg, R. E. 1963. The ants of Colorado, with reference to their ecology, taxonomy, and geographic distribution. Boulder: University of Colorado Press, xvi + 792 pp. [1963] 125667: 447 (U.S.A., Colorado); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1963Wheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1963. The ants of North Dakota. Grand Forks, North Dakota: University of North Dakota Press, viii + 326 pp. [1963] 129848: 160 (U.S.A., North Dakota); Collingwood, 1964bCollingwood, C. A. 1964b. The identification and distribution of British ants. 1. A revised key to the species found in Britain. Transactions of the Society for British Entomology 16:93-114,121. [1964-12] PDF 123798: 104 (Britain); Bernard, 1967aBernard, F. 1967a ("1968"). Faune de l'Europe et du Bassin Méditerranéen. 3. Les fourmis (Hymenoptera Formicidae) d'Europe occidentale et septentrionale. Paris: Masson, 411 pp. [1967-11] PDF 122660: 268 (Western Europe); Wilson & Taylor, 1967bWilson, E. O.; Taylor, R. W. 1967b. The ants of Polynesia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Pacific Insects Monograph 14:1-109. [1967-08-15] PDF 130430: 17 (Polynesia); Boven, 1970bBoven, J. K. A. 1970b. Le polymorphisme des ouvrières de Megaponera foetens Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Publicatiës van het Natuurhistorisch Genootschap in Limburg 20(3/4):5-9. [1970] 122979}: 26 (Netherlands); Kempf, 1972bKempf, W. W. 1972b. Catálogo abreviado das formigas da região Neotropical. Studia Entomologica 15:3-344. [1972-08-25] PDF 126357: 266 (Neotropical, synoptic classification); Bolton, 1973aBolton, B. 1973a. The ant genera of West Africa: a synonymic synopsis with keys (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Entomology 27:317-368. [1973-01-18] PDF 122835: 329 (West Africa genera); Bolton & Collingwood, 1975Bolton, B.; Collingwood, C. A. 1975. Handbooks for the identification of British Insects. Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects 6(3(c)):1-34. [1975-06] 122862: 3 (Britain); Snelling & Hunt, 1975Snelling, R. R.; Hunt, J. H. 1975. The ants of Chile (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Revista Chilena de Entomología 9:63-129. [1976-05] PDF 128906: 104 (Chile); Tarbinsky, 1976Tarbinsky, Y. S. 1976. The ants of Kirghizia. [In Russian.]. Frunze: Ilim, 217 pp. [1976-06-04>] PDF 129149: 126 (Kyrghyzstan); Boven, 1977Boven, J. K. A. 1977. De mierenfauna van België (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Acta Zoologica et Pathologica Antverpiensia 67:1-191. [1977-06] PDF 122960}: 126 (Belgium); Kutter, 1977cKutter, H. 1977c. Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Insecta Helvetica. Fauna 6:1-298. [1977] 126740: 183 (Switzerland); Arnol'di & Dlussky, 1978Arnol'di, K. V.; Dlussky, G. M. 1978. Superfam. Formicoidea. 1. Fam. Formicidae - ants. [In Russian.]. Pp. 519-556 in: Medvedev, G. S. (ed.) 1978. Keys to the insects of the European part of the USSR. Vol. 3. Hymenoptera. Part 1. [In Russian.]. Opredeliteli Faune SSSR 119:3-584. [1978-11-02>] 122371: 548 (former European U.S.S.R.); Collingwood, 1978Collingwood, C. A. 1978. A provisional list of Iberian Formicidae with a key to the worker caste (Hym. Aculeata). EOS. Revista Española de Entomología 52:65-95. [1978-05-10] PDF 123763: 88 (Iberian Peninsula); Collingwood, 1979Collingwood, C. A. 1979. The Formicidae (Hymenoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica 8:1-174. [1979] PDF 123764: 85 (Fennoscandia & Denmark); Greenslade, 1979Greenslade, P. J. M. 1979. A guide to ants of South Australia. Adelaide: South Australian Museum (Special Educational Bulletin Series), 44 pp. [1979] 125641: 32 (South Australia genera); Schembri & Collingwood, 1981Schembri, S. P.; Collingwood, C. A. 1981. A revision of the myrmecofauna of the Maltese Islands (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale "Giacomo Doria" 83:417-442. [1981-09-01] PDF 128469: 436 (Malta); Prins, 1983Prins, A. J. 1983. A new ant genus from southern Africa (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Annals of the South African Museum 94:1-11. [1983-11] PDF 127900: 8 (Southern Africa genera); Allred, 1982Allred, D. M. 1982. Ants of Utah. Great Basin Naturalist 42:415-511. [1982-12-31] 122181: 444 (U.S.A., Utah); Verhaeghe, Deligne, et al., 1984: 106 (Belgium genera); Baroni Urbani, 1984Baroni Urbani, C. 1984 ("1983"). Clave para la determinación de los géneros de hormigas neotropicales. Graellsia 39:73-82. [1984-02-10] PDF 122506: 81 (Neotropical genera); Gösswald, 1985Gösswald, K. 1985. Organisation und Leben der Ameisen. Stuttgart: Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 355 pp. [1985] 125570: 263 (Germany); Collingwood, 1985Collingwood, C. A. 1985. Hymenoptera: Fam. Formicidae of Saudi Arabia. Fauna of Saudi Arabia 7:230-302. [1985] PDF 123767: 273 (Saudi Arabia); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1986gWheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1986g. The ants of Nevada. Los Angeles: Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, vii + 138 pp. [1986] PDF 129925: 58 (U.S.A., Nevada); Nilsson & Douwes, 1987Nilsson, O.; Douwes, P. 1987. Norrländska myror med bestämningstabell till arbetarna. Natur i Norr 6:49-90. 127531: 68 (Norway); Agosti & Collingwood, 1987bAgosti, D.; Collingwood, C. A. 1987b. A provisional list of the Balkan ants (Hym. Formicidae) with a key to the worker caste. II. Key to the worker caste, including the European species without the Iberian. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft 60:261-293. [1987-12-15] PDF 122149: 279 (Balkans); Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990Dlussky, G. M.; Soyunov, O. S.; Zabelin, S. I. 1990. Ants of Turkmenistan. [In Russian.]. Ashkabad: Ylym Press, 273 pp. PDF 124151: 124 (Turkmenistan); Kupyanskaya, 1990aKupyanskaya, A. N. 1990a. Ants of the Far Eastern USSR. [In Russian.]. Vladivostok: Akademiya Nauk SSSR, 258 pp. [1990-09-13>] 126604: 162 (Far Eastern Russia); Morisita, Kubota, Onoyama, et al., 1991: 10 (Japan); Atanasov & Dlussky, 1992: 49 (Bulgaria); Shattuck, 1992bShattuck, S. O. 1992b. Higher classification of the ant subfamilies Aneuretinae, Dolichoderinae and Formicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Systematic Entomology 17:199-206. [1992-04] PDF 128604: 199 (higher classification, phylogeny); Lattke, in Jaffe, 1993Jaffe, K. 1993. El mundo de las hormigas. Baruta, Venezuela: Equinoccio (Ediciones de la Universidad Simón Bolívar), 188 pp. [1993-07] 126108: 150 (Neotropical genera); Arakelian, 1994Arakelian, G. R. 1994. Fauna of the Republic of Armenia. Hymenopterous insects. Ants (Formicidae). [In Russian.]. Erevan: Gitutium, 153 pp. [1994-06-20>] PDF 122300: 76 (Armenia); Wu & Wang, 1995aWu, J.; Wang, C. 1995a. The ants of China. [In Chinese.]. Beijing: China Forestry Publishing House, x + 214 pp. [1995-06] 130487: 125 (China genera); Kupyanskaya, 1995: 332 (Far Eastern Russia); Collingwood & Agosti, 1996Collingwood, C. A.; Agosti, D. 1996. Formicidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera) of Saudi Arabia (part 2). Fauna of Saudi Arabia 15:300-385. [1996-04-15] PDF 130931: 361 (Saudi Arabia); Seifert, 1996BSeifert, B. 1996B. Ameisen beobachten, bestimmen. Augsburg: Naturbuch Verlag, 351 pp. [1996-12-31] 132274: 166 (Central Europe); Skinner & Allen, 1996Skinner, G. J.; Allen, G. W. 1996. Ants. Naturalists' Handbook 24. Slough: Richmond Publishing Co., ii + 83 pp. [1996] 132350: 41 (Britain); Collingwood & Prince, 1998Collingwood, C.; Prince, A. 1998. A guide to ants of continental Portugal (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Boletim da Sociedade Portuguesa de Entomologia. Suplemento 5:1-49. [1998-07] 130938: 21 (Portugal); Shattuck, 1999Shattuck, S. O. 1999. Australian ants. Their biology and identification. 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African Region: Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Macaronesia, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Saint Helena, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe
Australian Region: Australia, Barrow Island, Lord Howe Island, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Zealand, Norfolk Island, Queensland, Solomon Islands, Western Australia
Eurasian Region: Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Alicante, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Balearic Islands, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Channel Islands, China, Crete, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Germany, Gibraltar, Greece, Guernsey, Hungary, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Isle of Man, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lebanon, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Monaco, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Netherlands, North Korea, Norway, Oman, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Uzbekistan
Malagasy Region: Comoros, Europa Island, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mayotte, Reunion, Seychelles
Nearctic Region: Alabama, Alaska, Alberta, Arizona, Arkansas, Baja California, British Columbia, California, Canada, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming
Neotropical Region: Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Falkland Islands, French Guiana, Galapagos Islands, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Martinique, Mato Grosso do Sul, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks and Caicos Islands, United States Virgin Islands, Uruguay, Venezuela
Pacific Islands Region: Cook Islands, Fiji, French Polynesia, Guam, Hawaii, Indonesia, Kerguelen Islands, Kiribati, Malaysia, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru, Niue, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Pitcairn, Samoa, Singapore, Timor-Leste, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Wallis and Futuna Islands
South East Asia Region: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Borneo, Cambodia, Christmas Island, Cocos Islands, India, Krakatau Islands, Laos, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicobar Island, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Xishuangbanna


Formicine ants have a single node-like or scale-like petiole (postpetiole entirely lacking) and the apex of the abdomen has a circular or U-shaped opening, usually fringed with hairs (acidopore). A functional sting is absent, and defense is provided by the ejection of formic acid through the acidopore. If the acidopore is concealed by the pygidium and difficult to discern, then the antennal sockets are located well behind the posterior margin of the clypeus (cf. Dolichoderinae). In most formicines the eyes are well developed (ocelli may also be present), the antennal insertions are not concealed by the frontal carinae, and the promesonotal suture is present and flexible.


This is a cosmopolitan group, with about 100 species in California. These include mound-building Formica ants; carpenter ants in the genus Camponotus; and honeypot ants (Myrmecocystus).


Agosti (1991); Bolton (1994); Grimaldi & Agosti (2000); Shattuck (1992b).

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Scientific Name Status Publication Pages ModsID GoogleMaps
Formicinae   Clark, J., 1930, New Formicidae, with notes on some little-known species., Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria 43, pp. 2-25: 11-12, (download) 11-12 6104
Formicinae   Collingwood, C. A., 1979, The Formicidae (Hymenoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark., Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica 8, pp. 1-174: 85-86, (download) 85-86 6175

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