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Subfamily: Myrmicinae   Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau, 1835 

Classification:

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2016)

Extant: 6 tribes, 142 genera, 6,600 species, 740 subspecies

Fossil: 36 genera, 158 species

Taxonomic history

Myrmicinae as group name: Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau, 1835 PDF: 169 [Myrmicites]; Nylander, 1846a PDF: 877 [Myrmicae].
Myrmicinae as family: Smith, 1851 PDF: 4 [Myrmicidae]; Smith, 1861b PDF: 45 [Myrmicidae]; Smith, 1871b PDF: 324 [Myrmicidae]; André, 1882a: 125 [Myrmicidae]; Cresson, 1887 PDF: 93 [Myrmicidae]; Emery, 1894h: 383 [Myrmicidae]; Saunders, 1896: 18 [Myrmicidae]; Ashmead, 1905c PDF: 383 [Myrmicidae]; Novák & Sadil, 1941 PDF: 71 [Myrmicidae]; Bernard, 1951c: 1058 [Myrmicidae]; Bernard, 1953b PDF: 222 [Myrmicidae].
Myrmicinae as subfamily of Poneridae: Smith, 1858a PDF: 114 [Myrmicidae].
Myrmicinae as tribe of Formicidae: {ref 132986}: 167 [Myrmicidae].
Myrmicinae as subfamily of Myrmicidae: Ashmead, 1905c PDF: 383.
Myrmicinae as subfamily of Formicidae: Mayr, 1855 PDF: 290, 299 [Myrmicidae]; Smith, 1857a PDF: 70 [Myrmicidae]; Mayr, 1861 PDF: 21 [Myrmicidae]; Smith, 1862b PDF: 33 [Myrmicidae]; Mayr, 1862 PDF: 738 [Myrmicidae]; Mayr, 1865 PDF: 17 [Myrmicidae]; Mayr, 1868c PDF: 24 [Myrmicidae]; Forel, 1870 PDF: 307 [Myrmicidae]; Forel, 1874 PDF: 22 [Myrmicidae]; Emery, 1877b PDF: 70 [Myrmicidae]; Forel, 1878c PDF: 367 [Myrmicidae]; Emery & Forel, 1879a: 456 [Myrmicidae]; André, 1881c PDF: 64 [Myrmicidae]; Nasonov, 1889: 28 [Myrmicidae]; Forel, 1891c PDF: 11 [Myrmicidae]; Forel, 1892k PDF: 220 [Myrmicidae]; Forel, 1893b PDF: 163; Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF: 53; Emery, 1895l PDF: 768 [subfamily spelled Myrmicini]; Emery, 1896e PDF: 179; Forel, 1899B: 30; Forel, 1902g PDF: 520; Bingham, 1903 PDF: 105; Wheeler, 1910a: 138; Emery, 1914e: 29; Wheeler, 1915h PDF: 806 [Myrmicides]; Wheeler, 1915i PDF: 40; Donisthorpe, 1915f: 74; Arnold, 1916 PDF: 166; Escherich, 1917: 2 [Myrmicini]; Forel, 1917 PDF: 240 [subfamily spelled Myrmicini]; Bondroit, 1918 PDF: 14 [Myrmicitae]; Wheeler, 1920 PDF: 53; Wheeler, 1922: 124; Emery, 1921c: 3; Karavaiev, 1934: 59; Clark, 1951 PDF: 16; Brown, 1954e PDF: 28; Wheeler & Wheeler, 1972a PDF: 40; Brown, 1973b PDF: 166; all subsequent authors.
Myrmicinae as myrmicomorph subfamily of Formicidae: Bolton, 2003 PDF: 52, 182.
Myrmicinae as formicoid myrmicomorph subfamily of Formicidae: Ward, 2007C PDF: 556.
Genera (extant) incertae sedis in Myrmicinae: Diaphoromyrma, Tyrannomyrmex.
Collective group name in Myrmicinae: Myrmicites.
Subfamily Myrmicinae references, world
Mayr, 1865 PDF: 17 (diagnosis); Mayr, 1867a PDF: 91 (diagnosis); Forel, 1878c PDF: 367 (diagnosis); Handlirsch, 1907: 872 (*fossil taxa catalogue); Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF: 53 (catalogue); Emery, 1895l PDF: 768 (diagnosis); Emery, 1896e PDF: 179 (genera key); Wheeler, 1910a: 138 (diagnosis); Emery, 1912b PDF: 101 (phylogeny); Emery, 1914e: 34 (phylogeny, tribe key); Arnold, 1916 PDF: 164 (diagnosis); Forel, 1917 PDF: 240 (synoptic classification); Forel, 1921c: 139 (diagnosis); Emery, 1921c: 3 (diagnosis, tribes & genera key, catalogue); Wheeler, 1922: 124, 655 (diagnosis, tribes key); Brown & Nutting, 1950 PDF: 126 (venation, phylogeny); Brown, 1954e PDF: 28 (phylogeny); Eisner, 1957 PDF: 477 (proventriculus morphology); Bernard, 1967a PDF: 93 (diagnosis); Gotwald, 1969: 99 (mouthparts morphology); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1972a PDF: 40 (diagnosis); Brown, 1973b PDF: 166 (genera, distribution); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1976b PDF: 52 (larvae, review & synthesis); Kugler, 1978a: 413 (sting structure); Kugler, 1978b PDF: 267 (pygidial glands); Kugler, 1979c: 117 (sting, evolution); Snelling, 1981: 393 (synoptic classification); Caetano, 1984: 257 (digestive tract, morphology); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1985b PDF: 257 (synoptic classification); Billen, 1986b: 167 (Dufour's gland); Dlussky & Fedoseeva, 1988: 79 (synoptic classification); Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990: 9 onward (synoptic classification, genera keys); Baroni Urbani, Bolton & Ward, 1992 PDF: 317 (phylogeny); Bolton, 1994: 75 (diagnosis, synoptic classification, genera keys); Bolton, 1995a PDF: 1040 (census); Bolton, 1995b: 13 (catalogue); Hashimoto, 1996 PDF: 354 (phylogenetic position); Baroni Urbani, 2000 PDF: 480 (phylogeny); Dlussky & Rasnitsyn, 2003 PDF: 422 (diagnosis for wingless fossils); Bolton, 2003 PDF: 52, 182 (diagnosis, synopsis); Moreau, Bell, <i>et al.</i> 2006: 102 (phylogeny); Brady, Schultz, <i>et al.</i> 2006: 18173 (phylogeny); Ward, 2007C PDF: 556 (classification); Keller, 2011 PDF: 1 (morphology, phylogeny); Bolton & Fisher, 2014 PDF: 1 (Eutetramorium genus group revision, diagnosis); Ward, Brady, Fisher & Schultz, 2015 PDF: 1 (phylogeny, tribal classification); Boudinot, 2015 PDF: 56 (male diagnosis); Fisher & Bolton, 2016: 50 (worker diagnosis)
Regional and national faunas with keys
{ref 127185}: 391 (Austria); {ref 127189}: 29 (Europe); {ref 127226}: 79 (*Baltic Amber); {ref 132986}: 171 (Europe); {ref 124988}: 29 (Switzerland); {ref 128453}: 213 (Britain); {ref 124526}: 256 (Europe & Algeria); {ref 123936}: 98 (U.S.A. genera); {ref 133021}: 243 (Canada); {ref 127508}: 54 (Russia); {ref 125030}: 11 (Madagascar genera); {ref 126777}: 66 (Belgium); {ref 125126}: 520 (India & Sri Lanka genera); {ref 122766}: 105 (India, Sri Lanka & Burma); {ref 128184}: 103 (Russian Empire); {ref 129630}: 13 (Luxemburg); {ref 122874}: 490 (Belgium); {ref 130044}: 558 (North America genera); {ref 129025}: 55 (Central Europe); {ref 125411}: 32 (Argentina genera); {ref 125260}: 8 (Switzerland); {ref 124216}: 74 (Britain); {ref 122310}: 166, 170 (South Africa tribes, genera); {ref 124734}: 112 (Italy); {ref 130115}: 581 (U.S.A., Connecticut); {ref 122872}: 90 (France & Belgium); {ref 140920}: 144 (Switzerland); {ref 128940}: 20 (Czechoslovakia); {ref 128985}: 84 (Netherlands); {ref 126255}: 256 (Ukraine); {ref 124250}: 77 (Britain); {ref 127353}: 170 (Dominican Republic); {ref 125432}: 91 (Argentina, tribes); {ref 122356}: 596 (Russia); {ref 127374}: 88 (Israel genera); {ref 126234}: 60 (Ukraine); {ref 128776}: 829 (Puerto Rico); {ref 129033}: 63 (Germany); {ref 126513}: 71 (Central Europe); {ref 126512}: 71 (Central Europe); {ref 123672}: 360 (U.S.A., Utah); {ref 128795}: 291 (U.S.A., males); {ref 125920}: 166 (Norway); {ref 125923}: 198 (Norway); {ref 123329}: 281 (U.S.A., Iowa); {ref 128808}: 543 (U.S.A. genera); {ref 140922}: 170 (Belgium); {ref 123910}: 83 (North America); {ref 126654}: 15 (Argentina); {ref 123147}: 25 (New Zealand); {ref 122956}: 7 (Netherlands); {ref 125667}: 288 (U.S.A., Colorado); {ref 129848}: 92 (U.S.A., North Dakota); {ref 123798}: 94 (Britain); {ref 122660}: 95 (Western Europe); {ref 130430}: 13 (Polynesia); {ref 122979}: 9 (Netherlands); {ref 126357}: 263 (Neotropical, synoptic classification); {ref 122835}: 325 (West Africa genera); {ref 122862}: 3 (Britain); {ref 128906}: 70 (Chile); {ref 129149}: 19 (Kyrghyzstan); {ref 122960}: 69 (Belgium); {ref 126740}: 31 (Switzerland); {ref 122371}: 524 (former European U.S.S.R.); {ref 123763}: 75 (Iberian Peninsula); {ref 123764}: 36 (Fennoscandia & Denmark); {ref 125641}: 20 (South Australia genera); {ref 128469}: 423 (Malta); {ref 122181}: 438 (U.S.A., Utah); {ref 122506}: 76 (Neotropical genera); {ref 140926}: 112 (Belgium genera); {ref 125570}: 289 (Germany); {ref 123767}: 245 (Saudi Arabia); {ref 129925}: 20 (U.S.A., Nevada); {ref 127531}: 57 (Norway); {ref 122149}: 265 (Balkans); {ref 124151}: 181 (Turkmenistan); {ref 126604}: 89 (Far Eastern Russia); {ref 127582}: 61 (Japan genera); {ref 141050}: 1 (Japan); {ref 140927}: 51 (Bulgaria); Lattke, in {ref 126108}: 153 (Neotropical genera); {ref 122300}: 15 (Armenia); {ref 130487}: 57 (China genera); {ref 140928}: 327 (Far Eastern Russia); {ref 130931}: 308 (Saudi Arabia); {ref 132274}: 108 (Central Europe); {ref 132350}: 43 (Britain); {ref 130938}: 10 (Portugal); {ref 132308}: 39, 122 (Australia genera, synopsis); {ref 130660}: 37 (northern Australia genera); {ref 132709}: 69 (China, Guangxi); {ref 130994}: 135 (Poland); {ref 130646}: 55 (Turkey genera); {ref 132694}: 424 (Japan genera, males); {ref 131795}: 58 (U.S.A., New Mexico); Palacio & Fernández, in {ref 133005}: 244 (Neotropical genera and synopsis); {ref 140934}: 32 (U.S.A., Ohio); {ref 132056}: 184 (North Korea); {ref 130924}: 190 (Micronesia); {ref 132271}: 110 (North and Central Europe); {ref 132431}: 131 (Taiwan); {ref 131481}: 36 (south-western Australia genera); {ref 130781}: 46 (Benelux); {ref 132840}: 8 (Vietnam genera); {ref 133060}: 73 (Philippines genera key).

Distribution:


Afrotropical Region: Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Saint Helena, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe
Australasia Region: Australian Capital Territory, Barrow Island, Lord Howe Island, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, New Zealand, Norfolk Island, Northern Territory, Papua New Guinea, Queensland, Solomon Islands, South Australia, Tasmania, Timor-Leste, Vanuatu, Victoria, Western Australia
Indomalaya Region: Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Bihar, Borneo, Brunei, Cambodia, Goa, Himachal Pradesh, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Karnataka, Kerala, Krakatau Islands, Laos, Maharashtra, Malaysia, Meghalaya, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicobar Island, Orissa, Pakistan, Philippines, Sikkim, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Tamil Nadu, Thailand, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Vietnam, West Bengal
Malagasy Region: British Indian Ocean Territory, Comoros, Europa Island, Juan de Nova Island, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mayotte, Reunion, Seychelles
Nearctic Region: Alabama, Alaska, Alberta, Arizona, Arkansas, British Columbia, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Quebec, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming
Neotropical Region: Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Curaçao, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Galapagos Islands, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Martinique, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Montserrat, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Martin, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks and Caicos Islands, United States Virgin Islands, Uruguay, Venezuela
Oceania Region: American Samoa, Cook Islands, Fiji, French Polynesia, Guam, Hawaii, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Niue, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Pitcairn, Samoa, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu, Wallis and Futuna Islands
Palearctic Region: Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Alicante, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Baja California, Balearic Islands, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Channel Islands, China, Crete, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Gibraltar, Hungary, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jammu and Kashmir, Japan, Jersey, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lebanon, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macaronesia, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Netherlands, North Korea, Norway, Oman, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Uzbekistan, Western Sahara, Yemen

Identification:

Myrmicine worker ants have a distinct postpetiole, i.e., abdominal segment III is notably smaller than segment IV and set off from it by a well developed constriction; the pronotum is inflexibly fused to the rest of the mesosoma, such that the promesonotal suture is weakly impressed or absent; and a functional sting is usually present. The clypeus is well developed; as a result the antennal sockets are well separated from the anterior margin of the head (cf. Ecitoninae). Most myrmicine genera possess well developed eyes, and frontal lobes that partly conceal the antennal insertions.

Male myrmicines are recognizable by the anterior and posterior constrictions of abdominal segment III, forming a postpetiole, which is smaller than the fourth abdominal segment (gastral segment I); antennal insertions distant from the anterior margin of the clypeus (nearly abutting in the proceratiine genera); meso- and metatibiae never with two spurs each (two each in the pseudomyrmecinae); anterior and posterior foramena of petiole more-or-less in the same plane (the posterior foramen of Tatuidris is distinctly raised above the anterior foramen in profile view). Characters which separate myrmicine from myrmeciine males are not included in this diagnosis; diagnosis based on Yoshimura & FIsher (2007), M.R. Smith (1943) and Boudinot ("Mesoamerican Males" in prep.).

Notes:

This is the largest ant subfamily, with more than 130 species in California alone. Most species are generalist omnivores but some have become specialized as predators, granivores, or fungus-growers.

References:

Bolton (1994, 2000); Ettershank (1966); Kugler (1978a, 1979c, 1986); Ogata (1991b).

Male references:

Smith, M.R. (1943) A generic and subgeneric synopsis of the male ants of the United States. American Midland Naturalist, 30: 273--321.

Yoshimura, M. & Fisher B.L. (2007) A revision of male ants of the Malagasy region (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): key to subfamilies and treatment of the genera of Ponerinae. Zootaxa, 1654: 21--40.

 

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Scientific Name Status Publication Pages ModsID GoogleMaps
Myrmicinae   Donisthorpe, H. S. J. K., 1938, Five new species of ant, chiefly from New Guinea., Annals and Magazine of Natural History 1, pp. 140-148: 141, (download) 141 5782
Dodous   Donisthorpe, H. S. J. K., 1946, A new genus and species of Formicidae (Hym.) from Mauritius., Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London 15, pp. 145-147: 145, (download) 145 5834
Myrmicinae   Collingwood, C. A., 1979, The Formicidae (Hymenoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark., Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica 8, pp. 1-174: 36-40, (download) 36-40 6175
Myrmicinae   Wheeler, W. M., 1922, The ants collected by the American Museum Congo Expedition., Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 45, pp. 39-269: 124-125, (download) 124-125 20597


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