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Subfamily: Myrmicinae   Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau, 1835 

Classification:

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2016)

Extant: 6 tribes, 141 genera, 6,582 species, 802 subspecies

Fossil: 37 genera, 157 species

Taxonomic history

Myrmicinae as group name: Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau, 1835 PDF: 169 [Myrmicites]; Nylander, 1846a PDF: 877 [Myrmicae].
Myrmicinae as family: Smith, 1851 PDF: 4 [Myrmicidae]; Smith, 1861b PDF: 45 [Myrmicidae]; Smith, 1871b PDF: 324 [Myrmicidae]; André, 1882a}: 125 [Myrmicidae]; Cresson, 1887 PDF: 93 [Myrmicidae]; Emery, 1894h: 383 [Myrmicidae]; Saunders, 1896: 18 [Myrmicidae]; Ashmead, 1905c PDF: 383 [Myrmicidae]; Novák & Sadil, 1941 PDF: 71 [Myrmicidae]; Bernard, 1951c: 1058 [Myrmicidae]; Bernard, 1953b PDF: 222 [Myrmicidae].
Myrmicinae as subfamily of Poneridae: Smith, 1858a PDF: 114 [Myrmicidae].
Myrmicinae as tribe of Formicidae: {ref 132986}: 167 [Myrmicidae].
Myrmicinae as subfamily of Myrmicidae: Ashmead, 1905c PDF: 383.
Myrmicinae as subfamily of Formicidae: Mayr, 1855 PDF: 290, 299 [Myrmicidae]; Smith, 1857a PDF: 70 [Myrmicidae]; Mayr, 1861 PDF: 21 [Myrmicidae]; Smith, 1862b PDF: 33 [Myrmicidae]; Mayr, 1862 PDF: 738 [Myrmicidae]; Mayr, 1865 PDF: 17 [Myrmicidae]; Mayr, 1868c PDF: 24 [Myrmicidae]; Forel, 1870 PDF: 307 [Myrmicidae]; Forel, 1874 PDF: 22 [Myrmicidae]; Emery, 1877b PDF: 70 [Myrmicidae]; Forel, 1878c PDF: 367 [Myrmicidae]; Emery & Forel, 1879a: 456 [Myrmicidae]; André, 1881c PDF: 64 [Myrmicidae]; Nasonov, 1889: 28 [Myrmicidae]; Forel, 1891c PDF: 11 [Myrmicidae]; Forel, 1892k PDF: 220 [Myrmicidae]; Forel, 1893b PDF: 163; Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF}: 53; Emery, 1895l PDF: 768 [subfamily spelled Myrmicini]; Emery, 1896e PDF: 179; Forel, 1899B: 30; Forel, 1902g PDF: 520; Bingham, 1903 PDF: 105; Wheeler, 1910a: 138; Emery, 1914e: 29; Wheeler, 1915h PDF: 806 [Myrmicides]; Wheeler, 1915i PDF: 40; Donisthorpe, 1915f: 74; Arnold, 1916 PDF: 166; Escherich, 1917: 2 [Myrmicini]; Forel, 1917 PDF: 240 [subfamily spelled Myrmicini]; Bondroit, 1918 PDF: 14 [Myrmicitae]; Wheeler, 1920 PDF: 53; Wheeler, 1922: 124; Emery, 1921c: 3; Karavaiev, 1934: 59; Clark, 1951 PDF: 16; Brown, 1954e PDF}: 28; Wheeler & Wheeler, 1972a PDF: 40; Brown, 1973b PDF}: 166; all subsequent authors.
Myrmicinae as myrmicomorph subfamily of Formicidae: Bolton, 2003 PDF: 52, 182.
Myrmicinae as formicoid subfamily of Formicidae: Moreau, Bell, et al. 2006: 102; Brady, Schultz, et al. 2006: 18173.
Myrmicinae as formicoid myrmicomorph subfamily of Formicidae: Ward, 2007C PDF: 556.
Genera (extant) incertae sedis in Myrmicinae: Diaphoromyrma, Tyrannomyrmex.
Collective group name in Myrmicinae: Myrmicites.
Subfamily Myrmicinae references, world
Mayr, 1865Mayr, G. 1865. Formicidae. In: Novara Expedition 1865. Reise der Österreichischen Fregatte "Novara" um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859. Zoologischer Theil. Bd. II. Abt. 1. Wien: K. Gerold's Sohn, 119 pp. [1865-12-14] PDF 127193: 17 (diagnosis); Mayr, 1867aMayr, G. 1867a. Adnotationes in monographiam formicidarum Indo-Neerlandicarum. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 10:33-117. [1867] PDF 127217: 91 (diagnosis); Forel, 1878cForel, A. 1878c. Études myrmécologiques en 1878 (première partie) avec l'anatomie du gésier des fourmis. Bulletin de la Société Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles 15:337-392. [1878-10] PDF 125003: 367 (diagnosis); Handlirsch, 1907Handlirsch, A. 1907. Die fossilen Insekten und die Phylogenie der rezenten Formen. Ein Handbuch für Paläontologen und Zoologen. Lieferung 6. Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann, pp. 801-960. [1907-06] 125751: 872 (*fossil taxa catalogue); Dalla Torre, 1893Dalla Torre, K. W. 1893. Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus. Vol. 7. Formicidae (Heterogyna). Leipzig: W. Engelmann, 289 pp. [1893] PDF 124002: 53 (catalogue); Emery, 1895lEmery, C. 1895l. Die Gattung Dorylus Fab. und die systematische Eintheilung der Formiciden. Zoologische Jahrbücher. Abteilung für Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der Tiere 8:685-778. [1895-10-18] PDF 124599: 768 (diagnosis); Emery, 1896eEmery, C. 1896e. Clef analytique des genres de la famille des Formicides, pour la détermination des neutres. Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 40:172-189. [1896-05-02>] PDF 124609: 179 (genera key); Wheeler, 1910aWheeler, W. M. 1910a. Ants: their structure, development and behavior. New York: Columbia University Press, xxv + 663 pp. [1910-03] 130044: 138 (diagnosis); Emery, 1912bEmery, C. 1912b. Études sur les Myrmicinae. [I-IV.]. Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 56:94-105. [1912-05-09] PDF 124706: 101 (phylogeny); Emery, 1914eEmery, C. 1914e. Intorno alla classificazione dei Myrmicinae. Rendiconti delle Sessioni della Reale Accademia delle Scienze dell'Istituto di Bologna. Classe di Scienze Fisiche (n.s.)18:29-42. [1914] 124720: 34 (phylogeny, tribe key); Arnold, 1916Arnold, G. 1916. A monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. Part II. Ponerinae, Dorylinae. Annals of the South African Museum 14:159-270. [1916-05-20] PDF 122310: 164 (diagnosis); Forel, 1917Forel, A. 1917. Cadre synoptique actuel de la faune universelle des fourmis. Bulletin de la Société Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles 51:229-253. [1917-03-08] PDF 124997: 240 (synoptic classification); Forel, 1921cForel, A. 1921c. Le monde social des fourmis comparé à celui de l'homme. Tome 1. Genèse, formes, anatomie, classification. géographie, fossiles. Genève: Librairie Kundig, xiv + 192 pp. [1921] 125267: 139 (diagnosis); Emery, 1921cEmery, C. 1921c. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Myrmicinae. [part]. Genera Insectorum 174A:1-94 + 7 plates. [1921-06-01] 124749: 3 (diagnosis, tribes & genera key, catalogue); Wheeler, 1922Wheeler, W. M. 1922. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. New York: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 1139. 133015: 124, 655 (diagnosis, tribes key); Brown & Nutting, 1950Brown, W. L., Jr.; Nutting, W. L. 1950. Wing venation and the phylogeny of the Formicidae. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 75:113-132. [1950-01-04] PDF 123254: 126 (venation, phylogeny); Brown, 1954eBrown, W. L., Jr. 1954e. Remarks on the internal phylogeny and subfamily classification of the family Formicidae. Insectes Sociaux 1:21-31. [1954-03] PDF 123108: 28 (phylogeny); Eisner, 1957Eisner, T. 1957. A comparative morphological study of the proventriculus of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 116:439-490. [1957-07] PDF 124480: 477 (proventriculus morphology); Bernard, 1967aBernard, F. 1967a ("1968"). Faune de l'Europe et du Bassin Méditerranéen. 3. Les fourmis (Hymenoptera Formicidae) d'Europe occidentale et septentrionale. Paris: Masson, 411 pp. [1967-11] PDF 122660: 93 (diagnosis); Gotwald, 1969: 99 (mouthparts morphology); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1972aWheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1972a. The subfamilies of Formicidae. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 74:35-45. [1972-03-28] PDF 129891: 40 (diagnosis); Brown, 1973bBrown, W. L., Jr. 1973b. A comparison of the Hylean and Congo-West African rain forest ant faunas. Pp. 161-185 in: Meggers, B. J.; Ayensu, E. S.; Duckworth, W. D. (eds.) 1973. Tropical forest ecosystems in Africa and South America: a comparative review. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, viii + 350 pp. [1973-01] PDF 123216: 166 (genera, distribution); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1976bWheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1976b. Ant larvae: review and synthesis. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Washington 7:1-108. [1976] PDF 129906: 52 (larvae, review & synthesis); Kugler, 1978aKugler, C. 1978a. A comparative study of the myrmicine sting apparatus (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Studia Entomologica 20:413-548. [1978-08-30] 126566: 413 (sting structure); Kugler, 1978bKugler, C. 1978b. Pygidial glands in the myrmicine ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Insectes Sociaux 25:267-274. [1978-09] PDF 126567: 267 (pygidial glands); Kugler, 1979cKugler, C. 1979c. Evolution of the sting apparatus in the myrmicine ants. Evolution 33:117-130. [1979-05-15] 126570: 117 (sting, evolution); Snelling, 1981Snelling, R. R. 1981. Systematics of social Hymenoptera. Pp. 369-453 in: Hermann, H. R. (ed.) 1981. Social insects. Volume 2. New York: Academic Press, xiii + 491 pp. [1981] [1981] 128876: 393 (synoptic classification); Caetano, 1984Caetano, F. H. 1984. Morfologia comparado do trato digestivo de formigas da subfamília Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Papeis Avulsos de Zoologia (São Paulo) 35:257-305. [1984-12-28] 123428: 257 (digestive tract, morphology); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1985bWheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1985b. A simplified conspectus of the Formicidae. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 111:255-264. [1985-07-30] PDF 129918: 257 (synoptic classification); Billen, 1986bBillen, J. P. J. 1986b. Comparative morphology and ultrastructure of the Dufour gland in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Entomologia Generalis 11:165-181. [1986-05-30] 122738: 167 (Dufour's gland); Dlussky & Fedoseeva, 1988Dlussky, G. M.; Fedoseeva, E. B. 1988. Origin and early stages of evolution in ants. [In Russian.]. Pp. 70-144 in: Ponomarenko, A. G. (ed.) 1988. Cretaceous biocenotic crisis and insect evolution. [In Russian.]. Moskva: Nauka, 232 pp. [1987-12-22>] 124165: 79 (synoptic classification); Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990Hölldobler, B.; Wilson, E. O. 1990. The ants. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, xii + 732 pp. 122852: 9 onward (synoptic classification, genera keys); Baroni Urbani, Bolton & Ward, 1992Baroni Urbani, C.; Bolton, B.; Ward, P. S. 1992. The internal phylogeny of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Systematic Entomology 17:301-329. [1992-10] PDF 122513: 317 (phylogeny); Bolton, 1994Bolton, B. 1994. Identification guide to the ant genera of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 222 pp. [1994-07-25] 122834: 75 (diagnosis, synoptic classification, genera keys); Bolton, 1995aBolton, B. 1995a. A taxonomic and zoogeographical census of the extant ant taxa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of Natural History 29:1037-1056. [1995-08] PDF 122859: 1040 (census); Bolton, 1995bBolton, B. 1995b. A new general catalogue of the ants of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 504 pp. [1995-10] 122860: 13 (catalogue); Hashimoto, 1996Hashimoto, Y. 1996. Skeletomuscular modifications associated with the formation of an additional petiole on the anterior abdominal segments in aculeate Hymenoptera. Japanese Journal of Entomology 64:340-356. [1996-06-25] PDF 131444: 354 (phylogenetic position); Baroni Urbani, 2000Baroni Urbani, C. 2000. Rediscovery of the Baltic amber ant genus Prionomyrmex (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) and its taxonomic consequences. Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae 93:471-480. [2000] PDF 130704: 480 (phylogeny); Dlussky & Rasnitsyn, 2003Dlussky, G. M.; Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2003 ("2002"). Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Formation Green River and some other Middle Eocene deposits of North America. Russian Entomological Journal 11:411-436. [2003-06] PDF 131135: 422 (diagnosis for wingless fossils); Bolton, 2003Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and classification of Formicidae. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 71:1-370. [2003-11-10] PDF 130789: 52, 182 (diagnosis, synopsis); Moreau, Bell, et al. 2006: 102 (phylogeny); Brady, Schultz, et al. 2006: 18173 (phylogeny); Ward, 2007CWard, P. S. 2007C. Phylogeny, classification, and species-level taxonomy of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa 1668:549-563. [2007-12-21] PDF 132572: 556 (classification); Keller, 2011Keller, R. A. 2011. A phylogenetic analysis of ant morphology (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with special reference to the poneromorph subfamilies. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 355:1-90. [2011-08-10] PDF 132879: 1 (morphology, phylogeny); Bolton & Fisher, 2014Bolton, B.; Fisher, B. L. 2014. The Madagascan endemic myrmicine ants related to Eutetramorium (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): taxonomy of the genera Eutetramorium Emery, Malagidris nom. n., Myrmisaraka gen. n., Royidris gen. n., and Vitsika gen. n. Zootaxa 3791(1):1-99. [2014-04-24] PDF 142580: 1 (Eutetramorium genus group revision, diagnosis); Ward, Brady, Fisher & Schultz, 2015Ward, P. S.; Brady, S. G.; Fisher, B. L.; Schultz, T. R. 2015. The evolution of myrmicine ants: phylogeny and biogeography of a hyperdiverse ant clade (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Systematic Entomology 40:61-81. PDF 142630: 1; Boudinot, 2015Boudinot, B. E. 2015. Contributions to the knowledge of Formicidae (Hymenoptera, Aculeata): a new diagnosis of the family, the first global male-based key to subfamilies, and a treatment of early branching lineages. European Journal of Taxonomy 120:1-62. PDF 142740: 56 (male subfamily diagnosis)
Regional and national faunas with keys
Mayr, 1855Mayr, G. 1855. Formicina austriaca. Beschreibung der bisher im österreichischen Kaiserstaate aufgefundenen Ameisen, nebst Hinzufügung jener in Deutschland, in der Schweiz und in Italien vorkommenden Arten. Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Vereins in Wien 5:273-478. [1855] PDF 127185: 391 (Austria); Mayr, 1861Mayr, G. 1861. Die europäischen Formiciden. Nach der analytischen Methode bearbeitet. Wien: C. Gerolds Sohn, 80 pp. [1861] PDF 127189: 29 (Europe); Mayr, 1868cMayr, G. 1868c. Die Ameisen des baltischen Bernsteins. Beiträge zur Naturkunde Preussens 1:1-102. [1868] PDF 127226: 79 (*Baltic Amber); {ref 132986}: 171 (Europe); Forel, 1874Forel, A. 1874. Les fourmis de la Suisse. Systématique, notices anatomiques et physiologiques, architecture, distribution géographique, nouvelles expériences et observations de moeurs. Neue Denkschriften der Allgemeinen Schweizerischen Gesellschaft für die Gesammten Naturwissenschaften 26:1-452. [1874] PDF 124988: 29 (Switzerland); Saunders, 1880Saunders, E. 1880. Synopsis of the British Heterogyna and fossorial Hymenoptera. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1880:201-304. [1880-12-31] PDF 128453: 213 (Britain); Emery, in André, 1882c: 256 (Europe & Algeria); Cresson, 1887Cresson, E. T. 1887. Synopsis of the families and genera of the Hymenoptera of America, north of Mexico, together with a catalogue of the described species, and bibliography. Transactions of the American Entomological Society, Suppl. Vol. 1887:1-351. [1887] PDF 123936: 98 (U.S.A. genera); Provancher, 1887Provancher, L. 1887. Fam. X. - Les Formicides. Dummy reference. Pp. 224-249 in: Provancher, L. 1887. 1885-1889. Additions et corrections au Volume II de la Faune entomologique du Canada, traitant des Hyménoptères. Québec: C. Darveau, 477 pp. 133021: 243 (Canada); Nasonov, 1889Nasonov, N. V. 1889. Contribution to the natural history of the ants primarily of Russia. 1. Contribution to the ant fauna of Russia. [In Russian.]. Izvestiya Imperatorskago Obshchestva Lyubitelei Estestvoznaniya Antropologii i Etnografii pri Imperatorskom Moskovskom Universitete 58:1-78. [1889] 127508: 54 (Russia); Forel, 1891cForel, A. 1891c. Les Formicides. [part]. In: Grandidier, A. 1891. Histoire physique, naturelle, et politique de Madagascar. Volume XX. Histoire naturelle des Hyménoptères. Deuxième partie (28e fascicule). Paris: Hachette et Cie, v + 237 pp. [1891] PDF 125030: 11 (Madagascar genera); Lameere, 1892Lameere, A. 1892. Note sur les fourmis de la Belgique. Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 36:61-69. [1892-02-06>] 126777: 66 (Belgium); Forel, 1902gForel, A. 1902g. Les Formicides de l'Empire des Indes et de Ceylan. Part IX. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 14:520-546. [1902-10-18] PDF 125126: 520 (India & Sri Lanka genera); Bingham, 1903Bingham, C. T. 1903. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera, Vol. II. Ants and Cuckoo-wasps. London: Taylor and Francis, 506 pp. [1903] PDF 122766: 105 (India, Sri Lanka & Burma); Ruzsky, 1905bRuzsky, M. 1905b. The ants of Russia. (Formicariae Imperii Rossici). Systematics, geography and data on the biology of Russian ants. Part I. [In Russian.]. Trudy Obshchestva Estestvoispytatelei pri Imperatorskom Kazanskom Universitete 38(4-6):1-800. [1905] 128184: 103 (Russian Empire); Wasmann, 1906Wasmann, E. 1906. Zur Kenntniss der Ameisen und Ameisengäste von Luxemburg. Archives. Institut Grand-Ducal de Luxembourg (n.s.)1(1/2):104-124. [1906-06] PDF 129630: 13 (Luxemburg); Bondroit, 1910Bondroit, J. 1910 ("1909"). Les fourmis de Belgique. Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 53:479-500. [1910-01-05] PDF 122874: 490 (Belgium); Wheeler, 1910aWheeler, W. M. 1910a. Ants: their structure, development and behavior. New York: Columbia University Press, xxv + 663 pp. [1910-03] 130044: 558 (North America genera); Stitz, 1914Stitz, H. 1914. Die Ameisen (Formicidae) Mitteleuropas, insbesondere Deutschlands. Pp. 1-111 in: Schröder, C. (ed.) 1914. Die Insekten Mitteleuropas insbesondere Deutschlands. Band II, Hymenopteren, 2. Teil. Stuttgart: Franckh'sche Verlagshandlung, 256 pp. [1914] 129025: 55 (Central Europe); Gallardo, 1915Gallardo, A. 1915. Observaciones sobre algunas hormigas de la República Argentina. Anales del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Buenos Aires 27:1-35. [1915-06-03] PDF 125411: 32 (Argentina genera); Forel, 1915dForel, A. 1915d. Fauna insectorum helvetiae. Hymenoptera. Formicidae. Die Ameisen der Schweiz. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft 12(Beilage):1-77. [1915] 125260: 8 (Switzerland); Donisthorpe, 1915fDonisthorpe, H. 1915f. British ants, their life-history and classification. Plymouth: Brendon & Son Ltd., xv + 379 pp. [1915] 124216: 74 (Britain); Arnold, 1916Arnold, G. 1916. A monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. Part II. Ponerinae, Dorylinae. Annals of the South African Museum 14:159-270. [1916-05-20] PDF 122310: 166, 170 (South Africa tribes, genera); Emery, 1916aEmery, C. 1916a ("1915"). Fauna entomologica italiana. I. Hymenoptera.-Formicidae. Bullettino della Società Entomologica Italiana 47:79-275. [1916-11-30] PDF 124734: 112 (Italy); Wheeler, 1916rWheeler, W. M. 1916r. Formicoidea. Formicidae. Pp. 577-601 in: Viereck, H. L. 1916. Guide to the insects of Connecticut. Part III. The Hymenoptera, or wasp-like insects, of Connecticut. Connecticut State Geological and Natural History Survey. Bulletin 22:1-824. [1916] 130115: 581 (U.S.A., Connecticut); Bondroit, 1918Bondroit, J. 1918. Les fourmis de France et de Belgique. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 87:1-174. [1918-12-24] PDF 122872: 90 (France & Belgium); Kutter, 1920b: 144 (Switzerland); Soudek, 1922bSoudek, S. 1922b. Mravenci. Soustava, zemepisné rozsírení, oekologie a urcovací klíc mravencu zijících na území Ceskoslovenské republiky. Praha: Ceskoslovenská Spolecnost Entomologická, 100 pp. [1922] PDF 128940: 20 (Czechoslovakia); Stärcke, 1926Stärcke, A. 1926. Nieuwe Nederlandsche Formiciden (benevens enkele systematische opmerkingen). Entomologische Berichten (Amsterdam) 7:86-97. [1926-05-01] 128985}: 84 (Netherlands); Karavaiev, 1927dKaravaiev, V. 1927d. The ant fauna of Ukraine. [In Ukrainian.]. Zbirnyk Prats' Zoolohichnoho Muzeyu 2:1-52 [= Trudy. Ukrains'ka Akademiya Nauk. Fizichno-Matematichnoho Viddilu 4:247-296]. [1927] 126255: 256 (Ukraine); Donisthorpe, 1927cDonisthorpe, H. 1927c. British ants, their life history and classification (2nd edn.). London: G. Routledge and Sons, xvi + 436 pp. [1927] 124250: 77 (Britain); Menozzi & Russo, 1930Menozzi, C.; Russo, G. 1930. Contributo alla conoscenza della mirmecofauna della Repubblica Dominicana (Antille). Bollettino del Laboratorio di Zoologia Generale e Agraria della Reale Scuola Superiore d'Agricoltura. Portici 24:148-173. PDF 127353: 170 (Dominican Republic); Gallardo, 1932cGallardo, A. 1932c. Las hormigas de la República Argentina. Subfamilia Mirmicinas, segunda sección Eumyrmicinae, tribu Myrmicini (F. Smith), género Pogonomyrmex Mayr. Anales del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Buenos Aires 37:89-170. [1932-10-30] PDF 125432: 91 (Argentina, tribes); Arnol'di, 1933aArnol'di, K. V. 1933a. Formicidae - ants. [In Russian.]. Pp. 594-605 in: Filip'ev, I. N.; Ogloblin, D. A. (eds.) 1933. Keys to insects. [In Russian.]. Moskva: Ogiz, viii + 820 pp. [1933-12-03>] 122356: 596 (Russia); Menozzi, 1933bMenozzi, C. 1933b. Le formiche della Palestina. Memorie della Società Entomologica Italiana 12:49-113. [1933-06-15] PDF 127374: 88 (Israel genera); Karavaiev, 1934Karavaiev, V. 1934. The fauna of the family Formicidae (ants) of the Ukraine. [In Ukrainian.]. Trudy Instytutu Zoolohii ta Biolohii Vseukrains'koi Akademii Nauk. Seriya 1. Pratsi z Systematyky ta Faunistyky 1934:1-164. [1934-09-27>] 126234: 60 (Ukraine); Smith, 1937Smith, M. R. 1937 ("1936"). The ants of Puerto Rico. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico 20:819-875. [1937-01] PDF 128776: 829 (Puerto Rico); Stitz, 1939Stitz, H. 1939. Die Tierwelt Deutschlands und der angrenzenden Meersteile nach ihren Merkmalen und nach ihrer Lebensweise. 37. Theil. Hautflüger oder Hymenoptera. I: Ameisen oder Formicidae. Jena: G. Fischer, 428 pp. [1939] 129033: 63 (Germany); Kratochvíl, 1941bKratochvíl, J. 1941b. [Untitled. New subgenera of Tetramorium, and a new subspecies, Tetramorium ferox silhavyi, attributed to Kratochvíl.]. P. 84 in: Novák, V.; Sadil, J. 1941. Klíc k urcování mravencu strední Evropy se zvlástním zretelem k mravencí zvírene Cech a Moravy. Entomologické Listy 4:65-115. [1941] 126513: 71 (Central Europe); Novák & Sadil, 1941Novák, V.; Sadil, J. 1941. Klíc k urcování mravencu strední Evropy se zvlástním zretelem k mravencí zvírene Cech a Moravy. Entomologické Listy 4:65-115. PDF 126512: 71 (Central Europe); Cole, 1942Cole, A. C., Jr. 1942. The ants of Utah. American Midland Naturalist 28:358-388. [1942-10-13] PDF 123672}: 360 (U.S.A., Utah); Smith, 1943eSmith, M. R. 1943e. A generic and subgeneric synopsis of the male ants of the United States. American Midland Naturalist 30:273-321. [1943-10-22] PDF 128795: 291 (U.S.A., males); Holgersen, 1943cHolgersen, H. 1943c. Bestemmelsestabell over norske maur (Hym., Formicidae). Norsk Entomologisk Tidsskrift 6:164-182. [1943-09-01] 125920: 166 (Norway); Holgersen, 1944aHolgersen, H. 1944a. The ants of Norway (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Nytt Magasin for Naturvidenskapene 84:165-203. [1944-09-08] 125923: 198 (Norway); Buren, 1944aBuren, W. F. 1944a. A list of Iowa ants. Iowa State College Journal of Science 18:277-312. [1944-04] PDF 123329: 281 (U.S.A., Iowa); Smith, 1947fSmith, M. R. 1947f. A generic and subgeneric synopsis of the United States ants, based on the workers. American Midland Naturalist 37:521-647. [1947-07-27] PDF 128808: 543 (U.S.A. genera); Boven, 1947: 170 (Belgium); Creighton, 1950aCreighton, W. S. 1950a. The ants of North America. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 104:1-585. [1950-04] PDF 123910: 83 (North America); Kusnezov, 1956aKusnezov, N. 1956a. Claves para la identificación de las hormigas de la fauna argentina. Idia 104-105:1-56. [1956-09] PDF 126654: 15 (Argentina); Brown, 1958hBrown, W. L., Jr. 1958h. A review of the ants of New Zealand. Acta Hymenopterologica 1:1-50. [1958-07-30] PDF 123147}: 25 (New Zealand); Boven, 1959Boven, J. K. A. 1959. Vliesvleugelige insekten - Hymenoptera VI. Angeldragers (Aculeata). Mieren (Formicidae). Wetenschappelijke Mededelingen. Koninklijke Nederlandse Natuurhistorische Vereniging 30:1-32. [1959-01] 122956}: 7 (Netherlands); Gregg, 1963Gregg, R. E. 1963. The ants of Colorado, with reference to their ecology, taxonomy, and geographic distribution. Boulder: University of Colorado Press, xvi + 792 pp. [1963] 125667: 288 (U.S.A., Colorado); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1963Wheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1963. The ants of North Dakota. Grand Forks, North Dakota: University of North Dakota Press, viii + 326 pp. [1963] 129848: 92 (U.S.A., North Dakota); Collingwood, 1964bCollingwood, C. A. 1964b. The identification and distribution of British ants. 1. A revised key to the species found in Britain. Transactions of the Society for British Entomology 16:93-114,121. [1964-12] PDF 123798: 94 (Britain); Bernard, 1967aBernard, F. 1967a ("1968"). Faune de l'Europe et du Bassin Méditerranéen. 3. Les fourmis (Hymenoptera Formicidae) d'Europe occidentale et septentrionale. Paris: Masson, 411 pp. [1967-11] PDF 122660: 95 (Western Europe); Wilson & Taylor, 1967bWilson, E. O.; Taylor, R. W. 1967b. The ants of Polynesia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Pacific Insects Monograph 14:1-109. [1967-08-15] PDF 130430: 13 (Polynesia); Boven, 1970bBoven, J. K. A. 1970b. Le polymorphisme des ouvrières de Megaponera foetens Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Publicatiës van het Natuurhistorisch Genootschap in Limburg 20(3/4):5-9. [1970] 122979}: 9 (Netherlands); Kempf, 1972bKempf, W. W. 1972b. Catálogo abreviado das formigas da região Neotropical. Studia Entomologica 15:3-344. [1972-08-25] PDF 126357: 263 (Neotropical, synoptic classification); Bolton, 1973aBolton, B. 1973a. The ant genera of West Africa: a synonymic synopsis with keys (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Entomology 27:317-368. [1973-01-18] PDF 122835: 325 (West Africa genera); Bolton & Collingwood, 1975Bolton, B.; Collingwood, C. A. 1975. Handbooks for the identification of British Insects. Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects 6(3(c)):1-34. [1975-06] 122862: 3 (Britain); Snelling & Hunt, 1975Snelling, R. R.; Hunt, J. H. 1975. The ants of Chile (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Revista Chilena de Entomología 9:63-129. [1976-05] PDF 128906: 70 (Chile); Tarbinsky, 1976Tarbinsky, Y. S. 1976. The ants of Kirghizia. [In Russian.]. Frunze: Ilim, 217 pp. [1976-06-04>] PDF 129149: 19 (Kyrghyzstan); Boven, 1977Boven, J. K. A. 1977. De mierenfauna van België (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Acta Zoologica et Pathologica Antverpiensia 67:1-191. [1977-06] PDF 122960}: 69 (Belgium); Kutter, 1977cKutter, H. 1977c. Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Insecta Helvetica. Fauna 6:1-298. [1977] 126740: 31 (Switzerland); Arnol'di & Dlussky, 1978Arnol'di, K. V.; Dlussky, G. M. 1978. Superfam. Formicoidea. 1. Fam. Formicidae - ants. [In Russian.]. Pp. 519-556 in: Medvedev, G. S. (ed.) 1978. Keys to the insects of the European part of the USSR. Vol. 3. Hymenoptera. Part 1. [In Russian.]. Opredeliteli Faune SSSR 119:3-584. [1978-11-02>] 122371: 524 (former European U.S.S.R.); Collingwood, 1978Collingwood, C. A. 1978. A provisional list of Iberian Formicidae with a key to the worker caste (Hym. Aculeata). EOS. Revista Española de Entomología 52:65-95. [1978-05-10] PDF 123763: 75 (Iberian Peninsula); Collingwood, 1979Collingwood, C. A. 1979. The Formicidae (Hymenoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica 8:1-174. [1979] PDF 123764: 36 (Fennoscandia & Denmark); Greenslade, 1979Greenslade, P. J. M. 1979. A guide to ants of South Australia. Adelaide: South Australian Museum (Special Educational Bulletin Series), 44 pp. [1979] 125641: 20 (South Australia genera); Schembri & Collingwood, 1981Schembri, S. P.; Collingwood, C. A. 1981. A revision of the myrmecofauna of the Maltese Islands (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale "Giacomo Doria" 83:417-442. [1981-09-01] PDF 128469: 423 (Malta); Allred, 1982Allred, D. M. 1982. Ants of Utah. Great Basin Naturalist 42:415-511. [1982-12-31] 122181: 438 (U.S.A., Utah); Baroni Urbani, 1984Baroni Urbani, C. 1984 ("1983"). Clave para la determinación de los géneros de hormigas neotropicales. Graellsia 39:73-82. [1984-02-10] PDF 122506: 76 (Neotropical genera); Verhaeghe, Deligne, et al., 1984: 112 (Belgium genera); Gösswald, 1985Gösswald, K. 1985. Organisation und Leben der Ameisen. Stuttgart: Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 355 pp. [1985] 125570: 289 (Germany); Collingwood, 1985Collingwood, C. A. 1985. Hymenoptera: Fam. Formicidae of Saudi Arabia. Fauna of Saudi Arabia 7:230-302. [1985] PDF 123767: 245 (Saudi Arabia); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1986gWheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1986g. The ants of Nevada. Los Angeles: Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, vii + 138 pp. [1986] PDF 129925: 20 (U.S.A., Nevada); Nilsson & Douwes, 1987Nilsson, O.; Douwes, P. 1987. Norrländska myror med bestämningstabell till arbetarna. Natur i Norr 6:49-90. 127531: 57 (Norway); Agosti & Collingwood, 1987bAgosti, D.; Collingwood, C. A. 1987b. A provisional list of the Balkan ants (Hym. Formicidae) with a key to the worker caste. II. Key to the worker caste, including the European species without the Iberian. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft 60:261-293. [1987-12-15] PDF 122149: 265 (Balkans); Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990Dlussky, G. M.; Soyunov, O. S.; Zabelin, S. I. 1990. Ants of Turkmenistan. [In Russian.]. Ashkabad: Ylym Press, 273 pp. PDF 124151: 181 (Turkmenistan); Kupyanskaya, 1990aKupyanskaya, A. N. 1990a. Ants of the Far Eastern USSR. [In Russian.]. Vladivostok: Akademiya Nauk SSSR, 258 pp. [1990-09-13>] 126604: 89 (Far Eastern Russia); Ogata, 1991bOgata, K. 1991b. A generic synopsis of the poneroid complex of the family Formicidae (Hymenoptera). Part II. Subfamily Myrmicinae. Bulletin of the Institute of Tropical Agriculture Kyushu University 14:61-149. [1991-10] PDF 127582: 61 (Japan genera); Morisita, Kubota, et al. 1992: 1 (Japan); Atanasov & Dlussky, 1992: 51 (Bulgaria); Lattke, in Jaffe, 1993Jaffe, K. 1993. El mundo de las hormigas. Baruta, Venezuela: Equinoccio (Ediciones de la Universidad Simón Bolívar), 188 pp. [1993-07] 126108: 153 (Neotropical genera); Arakelian, 1994Arakelian, G. R. 1994. Fauna of the Republic of Armenia. Hymenopterous insects. Ants (Formicidae). [In Russian.]. Erevan: Gitutium, 153 pp. [1994-06-20>] PDF 122300: 15 (Armenia); Wu & Wang, 1995aWu, J.; Wang, C. 1995a. The ants of China. [In Chinese.]. Beijing: China Forestry Publishing House, x + 214 pp. [1995-06] 130487: 57 (China genera); Kupyanskaya, 1995: 327 (Far Eastern Russia); Collingwood & Agosti, 1996Collingwood, C. A.; Agosti, D. 1996. Formicidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera) of Saudi Arabia (part 2). Fauna of Saudi Arabia 15:300-385. [1996-04-15] PDF 130931: 308 (Saudi Arabia); Seifert, 1996BSeifert, B. 1996B. Ameisen beobachten, bestimmen. Augsburg: Naturbuch Verlag, 351 pp. [1996-12-31] 132274: 108 (Central Europe); Skinner & Allen, 1996Skinner, G. J.; Allen, G. W. 1996. Ants. Naturalists' Handbook 24. Slough: Richmond Publishing Co., ii + 83 pp. [1996] 132350: 43 (Britain); Collingwood & Prince, 1998Collingwood, C.; Prince, A. 1998. A guide to ants of continental Portugal (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Boletim da Sociedade Portuguesa de Entomologia. Suplemento 5:1-49. [1998-07] 130938: 10 (Portugal); Shattuck, 1999Shattuck, S. O. 1999. Australian ants. Their biology and identification. Collingwood, Victoria: CSIRO Publishing, xi + 226 pp. [1999-01] 132308: 39, 122 (Australia genera, synopsis); Andersen, 2000Andersen, A. N. 2000. The ants of northern Australia. A guide to the monsoonal fauna. Collingwood, Victoria: CSIRO Publishing, v + 106 pp. 130660: 37 (northern Australia genera); Zhou, 2001AZhou, S. 2001A. Ants of Guangxi. [In Chinese.]. Guilin, China: Guangxi Normal University Press, 255 pp. [2001-09-01] PDF 132709: 69 (China, Guangxi); Czechowski, Radchenko & Czechowska, 2002Czechowski, W.; Radchenko, A.; Czechowska, W. 2002. The ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Poland. Warsaw: Museum and Institute of Zoology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 200 pp. PDF 130994: 135 (Poland); Aktaç & Radchenko, 2002Aktaç, N.; Radchenko, A. G. 2002. Türkiye karincalarinin (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) altfamilya ve cins tani anahtarlari. Türkiye Entomoloji Dergisi 26:51-61. [2002-03] 130646: 55 (Turkey genera); Yoshimura & Onoyama, 2002BYoshimura, M.; Onoyama, K. 2002B. Male-based keys to the subfamilies and genera of Japanese ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Entomological Science 5:421-443. [2002-12-25] PDF 132694: 424 (Japan genera, males); Mackay & MacKay, 2002Mackay, W.; MacKay, E. 2002. The ants of New Mexico (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press, 400 pp. [2002-12] PDF 131795: 58 (U.S.A., New Mexico); Palacio & Fernández, in {ref 133005}: 244 (Neotropical genera and synopsis); Coovert, 2005: 32 (U.S.A., Ohio); Radchenko, 2005BRadchenko, A. 2005B. Monographic revision of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of North Korea. Annales Zoologici (Warsaw) 55:127-221. [2005-06-30] PDF 132056}: 184 (North Korea); Clouse, 2007BClouse, R. M. 2007B. The ants of Micronesia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Micronesica 39:171-295. [2007-07] 130924: 190 (Micronesia); Seifert, 2007Seifert, B. 2007. Die Ameisen Mittel- und Nordeuropas. Tauer: lutra Verlags- und Vertriebsgesellschaft, 368 pp. [2007-04] 132271: 110 (North and Central Europe); Terayama, 2009Terayama, M. 2009. A synopsis of the family Formicidae of Taiwan (Insecta: Hymenoptera). Research Bulletin of Kanto Gakuen University. Liberal Arts 17:81-266. [2009] PDF 132431: 131 (Taiwan); Heterick, 2009Heterick, B. E. 2009. A guide to the ants of south-western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 76:1-206. PDF 131481: 36 (south-western Australia genera); Boer, 2010Boer, P. 2010. Mieren van de Benelux. ?s-Graveland, Netherlands: Stichting Jeugdbondsuitgeverij, 183 pp. 130781: 46 (Benelux); Eguchi, Bui & Yamane, 2011Eguchi, K.; Bui, T. 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Distribution:


African Region: Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Macaronesia, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Saint Helena, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe
Australian Region: Australia, Barrow Island, Lord Howe Island, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Zealand, Norfolk Island, Queensland, Solomon Islands, Western Australia
Eurasian Region: Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Alicante, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Balearic Islands, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Channel Islands, China, Crete, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, Ethiopia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France, Germany, Gibraltar, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jersey, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lebanon, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Monaco, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Netherlands, North Korea, Norway, Oman, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Uzbekistan, Western Sahara
Malagasy Region: Comoros, Europa Island, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mayotte, Reunion, Seychelles
Nearctic Region: Alabama, Alaska, Alberta, Arizona, Arkansas, Baja California, British Columbia, California, Canada, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming
Neotropical Region: Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Galapagos Islands, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Martinique, Mato Grosso do Sul, Mexico, Montserrat, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Martin, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, St. Vincent, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks and Caicos Islands, United States Virgin Islands, Uruguay, Venezuela
Pacific Islands Region: American Samoa, Cook Islands, Fiji, French Polynesia, Guam, Hawaii, Indonesia, Kiribati, Malaysia, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Niue, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Pitcairn, Samoa, Singapore, Timor-Leste, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Wallis and Futuna Islands
South East Asia Region: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Borneo, Cambodia, India, Krakatau Islands, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicobar Island, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Xishuangbanna

Identification:

Myrmicine worker ants have a distinct postpetiole, i.e., abdominal segment III is notably smaller than segment IV and set off from it by a well developed constriction; the pronotum is inflexibly fused to the rest of the mesosoma, such that the promesonotal suture is weakly impressed or absent; and a functional sting is usually present. The clypeus is well developed; as a result the antennal sockets are well separated from the anterior margin of the head (cf. Ecitoninae). Most myrmicine genera possess well developed eyes, and frontal lobes that partly conceal the antennal insertions.

Male myrmicines are recognizable by the anterior and posterior constrictions of abdominal segment III, forming a postpetiole, which is smaller than the fourth abdominal segment (gastral segment I); antennal insertions distant from the anterior margin of the clypeus (nearly abutting in the proceratiine genera); meso- and metatibiae never with two spurs each (two each in the pseudomyrmecinae); anterior and posterior foramena of petiole more-or-less in the same plane (the posterior foramen of Tatuidris is distinctly raised above the anterior foramen in profile view). Characters which separate myrmicine from myrmeciine males are not included in this diagnosis; diagnosis based on Yoshimura & FIsher (2007), M.R. Smith (1943) and Boudinot ("Mesoamerican Males" in prep.).

Notes:

This is the largest ant subfamily, with more than 130 species in California alone. Most species are generalist omnivores but some have become specialized as predators, granivores, or fungus-growers.

References:

Bolton (1994, 2000); Ettershank (1966); Kugler (1978a, 1979c, 1986); Ogata (1991b).

Male references:

Smith, M.R. (1943) A generic and subgeneric synopsis of the male ants of the United States. American Midland Naturalist, 30: 273--321.

Yoshimura, M. & Fisher B.L. (2007) A revision of male ants of the Malagasy region (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): key to subfamilies and treatment of the genera of Ponerinae. Zootaxa, 1654: 21--40.

 

Taxon Page Author History

On 2012-09-09 10:41:19 Brendon Boudinot modified References
On 2012-09-09 10:39:00 Brendon Boudinot modified Identification
On 2012-09-09 10:37:13 Brendon Boudinot modified Identification
...

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Scientific Name Status Publication Pages ModsID GoogleMaps
Myrmicinae   Donisthorpe, H. S. J. K., 1938, Five new species of ant, chiefly from New Guinea., Annals and Magazine of Natural History 1, pp. 140-148: 141, (download) 141 5782
Dodous   Donisthorpe, H. S. J. K., 1946, A new genus and species of Formicidae (Hym.) from Mauritius., Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London 15, pp. 145-147: 145, (download) 145 5834
Myrmicinae   Collingwood, C. A., 1979, The Formicidae (Hymenoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark., Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica 8, pp. 1-174: 36-40, (download) 36-40 6175
Myrmicinae   Wheeler, W. M., 1922, The ants collected by the American Museum Congo Expedition., Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 45, pp. 39-269: 124-125, (download) 124-125 20597

(-1 examples)



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