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Subfamily: Myrmicinae   Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau, 1835 

Classification:

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2014)

Extant: 6 tribes, 139 genera, 6,499 species, 822 subspecies

Fossil: 35 genera, 147 species

Taxonomic history

Myrmicinae as group name: Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau, 1835 PDF: 169 [Myrmicites]; Nylander, 1846a PDF: 877 [Myrmicae].
Myrmicinae as family: Smith, 1851 PDF: 4 [Myrmicidae]; Smith, 1861b PDF: 45 [Myrmicidae]; Smith, 1871b PDF: 324 [Myrmicidae]; André, 1882a}: 125 [Myrmicidae]; Cresson, 1887 PDF: 93 [Myrmicidae]; Emery, 1894h: 383 [Myrmicidae]; Saunders, 1896: 18 [Myrmicidae]; Ashmead, 1905c PDF: 383 [Myrmicidae]; Novák & Sadil, 1941 PDF: 71 [Myrmicidae]; Bernard, 1951c: 1058 [Myrmicidae]; Bernard, 1953b PDF: 222 [Myrmicidae].
Myrmicinae as subfamily of Poneridae: Smith, 1858a PDF: 114 [Myrmicidae].
Myrmicinae as tribe of Formicidae: {ref 132986}: 167 [Myrmicidae].
Myrmicinae as subfamily of Myrmicidae: Ashmead, 1905c PDF: 383.
Myrmicinae as subfamily of Formicidae: Mayr, 1855 PDF: 290, 299 [Myrmicidae]; Smith, 1857a PDF: 70 [Myrmicidae]; Mayr, 1861 PDF: 21 [Myrmicidae]; Smith, 1862b PDF: 33 [Myrmicidae]; Mayr, 1862 PDF: 738 [Myrmicidae]; Mayr, 1865: 17 [Myrmicidae]; Mayr, 1868c PDF: 24 [Myrmicidae]; Forel, 1870 PDF: 307 [Myrmicidae]; Forel, 1874 PDF: 22 [Myrmicidae]; Emery, 1877b PDF: 70 [Myrmicidae]; Forel, 1878c PDF: 367 [Myrmicidae]; Emery & Forel, 1879a: 456 [Myrmicidae]; André, 1881c PDF: 64 [Myrmicidae]; Nasonov, 1889: 28 [Myrmicidae]; Forel, 1891c PDF: 11 [Myrmicidae]; Forel, 1892k PDF: 220 [Myrmicidae]; Forel, 1893b PDF: 163; Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF}: 53; Emery, 1895l PDF: 768 [subfamily spelled Myrmicini]; Emery, 1896e PDF: 179; Forel, 1899B: 30; Forel, 1902g PDF: 520; Bingham, 1903 PDF: 105; Wheeler, 1910a: 138; Emery, 1914e: 29; Wheeler, 1915h PDF: 806 [Myrmicides]; Wheeler, 1915i PDF: 40; Donisthorpe, 1915f: 74; Arnold, 1916 PDF: 166; Escherich, 1917: 2 [Myrmicini]; Forel, 1917 PDF: 240 [subfamily spelled Myrmicini]; Bondroit, 1918 PDF: 14 [Myrmicitae]; Wheeler, 1920 PDF: 53; Wheeler, 1922: 124; Emery, 1921c: 3; Karavaiev, 1934: 59; Clark, 1951 PDF: 16; Brown, 1954e PDF}: 28; Wheeler & Wheeler, 1972a PDF: 40; Brown, 1973b PDF}: 166; all subsequent authors.
Myrmicinae as myrmicomorph subfamily of Formicidae: Bolton, 2003 PDF: 52, 182.
Myrmicinae as formicoid subfamily of Formicidae: Moreau, Bell, et al. 2006: 102; Brady, Schultz, et al. 2006: 18173.
Myrmicinae as formicoid myrmicomorph subfamily of Formicidae: Ward, 2007C PDF: 556.
Subfamily Myrmicinae references, world
Mayr, 1865: 17 (diagnosis); Mayr, 1867a PDF: 91 (diagnosis); Forel, 1878c PDF: 367 (diagnosis); Handlirsch, 1907: 872 (*fossil taxa catalogue); Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF: 53 (catalogue); Emery, 1895l PDF: 768 (diagnosis); Emery, 1896e PDF: 179 (genera key); Wheeler, 1910a: 138 (diagnosis); Emery, 1912b PDF: 101 (phylogeny); Emery, 1914e: 34 (phylogeny, tribe key); Arnold, 1916 PDF: 164 (diagnosis); Forel, 1917 PDF: 240 (synoptic classification); Forel, 1921c: 139 (diagnosis); Emery, 1921c: 3 (diagnosis, tribes & genera key, catalogue); Wheeler, 1922: 124, 655 (diagnosis, tribes key); Brown & Nutting, 1950 PDF: 126 (venation, phylogeny); Brown, 1954e PDF: 28 (phylogeny); Eisner, 1957 PDF: 477 (proventriculus morphology); Bernard, 1967a PDF: 93 (diagnosis); Gotwald, 1969: 99 (mouthparts morphology); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1972a PDF: 40 (diagnosis); Brown, 1973b PDF: 166 (genera, distribution); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1976b PDF: 52 (larvae, review & synthesis); Kugler, 1978a: 413 (sting structure); Kugler, 1978b PDF: 267 (pygidial glands); Kugler, 1979c: 117 (sting, evolution); Snelling, 1981: 393 (synoptic classification); Caetano, 1984: 257 (digestive tract, morphology); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1985b PDF: 257 (synoptic classification); Billen, 1986b: 167 (Dufour's gland); Dlussky & Fedoseeva, 1988: 79 (synoptic classification); Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990: 9 onward (synoptic classification, genera keys); Baroni Urbani, Bolton & Ward, 1992 PDF: 317 (phylogeny); Bolton, 1994: 75 (diagnosis, synoptic classification, genera keys); Bolton, 1995a PDF: 1040 (census); Bolton, 1995b: 13 (catalogue); Hashimoto, 1996 PDF: 354 (phylogenetic position); Baroni Urbani, 2000 PDF: 480 (phylogeny); Dlussky & Rasnitsyn, 2003 PDF: 422 (diagnosis for wingless fossils); Bolton, 2003 PDF: 52, 182 (diagnosis, synopsis); Moreau, Bell, et al. 2006: 102 (phylogeny); Brady, Schultz, et al. 2006: 18173 (phylogeny); Ward, 2007C PDF: 556 (classification); Keller, 2011 PDF: 1 (morphology, phylogeny); Bolton & Fisher, 2014 PDF: 1 (Eutetramorium genus group revision, diagnosis)
Regional and national faunas with keys
Mayr, 1855 PDF: 391 (Austria); Mayr, 1861 PDF: 29 (Europe); Mayr, 1868c PDF: 79 (*Baltic Amber); {ref 132986}: 171 (Europe); Forel, 1874 PDF: 29 (Switzerland); Saunders, 1880 PDF: 213 (Britain); Emery, in André, 1882c: 256 (Europe & Algeria); Cresson, 1887 PDF: 98 (U.S.A. genera); Provancher, 1887: 243 (Canada); Nasonov, 1889: 54 (Russia); Forel, 1891c PDF: 11 (Madagascar genera); Lameere, 1892: 66 (Belgium); Forel, 1902g PDF: 520 (India & Sri Lanka genera); Bingham, 1903 PDF: 105 (India, Sri Lanka & Burma); Ruzsky, 1905b: 103 (Russian Empire); Wasmann, 1906 PDF: 13 (Luxemburg); Bondroit, 1910 PDF: 490 (Belgium); Wheeler, 1910a: 558 (North America genera); Stitz, 1914: 55 (Central Europe); Gallardo, 1915 PDF: 32 (Argentina genera); Forel, 1915d: 8 (Switzerland); Donisthorpe, 1915f: 74 (Britain); Arnold, 1916 PDF: 166, 170 (South Africa tribes, genera); Emery, 1916a PDF: 112 (Italy); Wheeler, 1916r: 581 (U.S.A., Connecticut); Bondroit, 1918 PDF: 90 (France & Belgium); Kutter, 1920b: 144 (Switzerland); Soudek, 1922b PDF: 20 (Czechoslovakia); Stärcke, 1926}: 84 (Netherlands); Karavaiev, 1927d: 256 (Ukraine); Donisthorpe, 1927c: 77 (Britain); Menozzi & Russo, 1930 PDF: 170 (Dominican Republic); Gallardo, 1932c PDF: 91 (Argentina, tribes); Arnol'di, 1933a: 596 (Russia); Menozzi, 1933b PDF: 88 (Israel genera); Karavaiev, 1934: 60 (Ukraine); Smith, 1937 PDF: 829 (Puerto Rico); Stitz, 1939: 63 (Germany); Kratochvíl, 1941b: 71 (Central Europe); Novák & Sadil, 1941 PDF: 71 (Central Europe); Cole, 1942 PDF}: 360 (U.S.A., Utah); Smith, 1943e PDF: 291 (U.S.A., males); Holgersen, 1943c: 166 (Norway); Holgersen, 1944a: 198 (Norway); Buren, 1944a PDF: 281 (U.S.A., Iowa); Smith, 1947f PDF: 543 (U.S.A. genera); Boven, 1947: 170 (Belgium); Creighton, 1950a PDF: 83 (North America); Kusnezov, 1956a PDF: 15 (Argentina); Brown, 1958h PDF}: 25 (New Zealand); Boven, 1959}: 7 (Netherlands); Gregg, 1963: 288 (U.S.A., Colorado); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1963: 92 (U.S.A., North Dakota); Collingwood, 1964b PDF: 94 (Britain); Bernard, 1967a PDF: 95 (Western Europe); Wilson & Taylor, 1967b PDF: 13 (Polynesia); Boven, 1970b}: 9 (Netherlands); Kempf, 1972b PDF: 263 (Neotropical, synoptic classification); Bolton, 1973a PDF: 325 (West Africa genera); Bolton & Collingwood, 1975: 3 (Britain); Snelling & Hunt, 1975 PDF: 70 (Chile); Tarbinsky, 1976 PDF: 19 (Kyrghyzstan); Boven, 1977 PDF}: 69 (Belgium); Kutter, 1977c: 31 (Switzerland); Arnol'di & Dlussky, 1978: 524 (former European U.S.S.R.); Collingwood, 1978 PDF: 75 (Iberian Peninsula); Collingwood, 1979 PDF: 36 (Fennoscandia & Denmark); Greenslade, 1979: 20 (South Australia genera); Schembri & Collingwood, 1981 PDF: 423 (Malta); Allred, 1982: 438 (U.S.A., Utah); Baroni Urbani, 1984 PDF: 76 (Neotropical genera); Verhaeghe, Deligne, et al., 1984: 112 (Belgium genera); Gösswald, 1985: 289 (Germany); Collingwood, 1985 PDF: 245 (Saudi Arabia); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1986g PDF: 20 (U.S.A., Nevada); Nilsson & Douwes, 1987: 57 (Norway); Agosti & Collingwood, 1987b PDF: 265 (Balkans); Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990 PDF: 181 (Turkmenistan); Kupyanskaya, 1990a: 89 (Far Eastern Russia); Ogata, 1991b PDF: 61 (Japan genera); Morisita, Kubota, et al. 1992: 1 (Japan); Atanasov & Dlussky, 1992: 51 (Bulgaria); Lattke, in Jaffe, 1993: 153 (Neotropical genera); Arakelian, 1994 PDF: 15 (Armenia); Wu & Wang, 1995a: 57 (China genera); Kupyanskaya, 1995: 327 (Far Eastern Russia); Collingwood & Agosti, 1996 PDF: 308 (Saudi Arabia); Seifert, 1996B: 108 (Central Europe); Skinner & Allen, 1996: 43 (Britain); Collingwood & Prince, 1998: 10 (Portugal); Shattuck, 1999: 39, 122 (Australia genera, synopsis); Andersen, 2000: 37 (northern Australia genera); Zhou, 2001A PDF: 69 (China, Guangxi); Czechowski, Radchenko & Czechowska, 2002 PDF: 135 (Poland); Aktaç & Radchenko, 2002: 55 (Turkey genera); Yoshimura & Onoyama, 2002B PDF: 424 (Japan genera, males); Mackay & MacKay, 2002 PDF: 58 (U.S.A., New Mexico); Palacio & Fernández, in {ref 133005}: 244 (Neotropical genera and synopsis); Coovert, 2005: 32 (U.S.A., Ohio); Radchenko, 2005B PDF}: 184 (North Korea); Clouse, 2007B: 190 (Micronesia); Seifert, 2007: 110 (North and Central Europe); Terayama, 2009 PDF: 131 (Taiwan); Heterick, 2009 PDF: 36 (south-western Australia genera); Boer, 2010: 46 (Benelux); Eguchi, Bui & Yamane, 2011 PDF: 8 (Vietnam genera); General & Alpert, 2012 PDF: 73 (Philippines genera key).

Identification:

Myrmicine worker ants have a distinct postpetiole, i.e., abdominal segment III is notably smaller than segment IV and set off from it by a well developed constriction; the pronotum is inflexibly fused to the rest of the mesosoma, such that the promesonotal suture is weakly impressed or absent; and a functional sting is usually present. The clypeus is well developed; as a result the antennal sockets are well separated from the anterior margin of the head (cf. Ecitoninae). Most myrmicine genera possess well developed eyes, and frontal lobes that partly conceal the antennal insertions.

Male myrmicines are recognizable by the anterior and posterior constrictions of abdominal segment III, forming a postpetiole, which is smaller than the fourth abdominal segment (gastral segment I); antennal insertions distant from the anterior margin of the clypeus (nearly abutting in the proceratiine genera); meso- and metatibiae never with two spurs each (two each in the pseudomyrmecinae); anterior and posterior foramena of petiole more-or-less in the same plane (the posterior foramen of Tatuidris is distinctly raised above the anterior foramen in profile view). Characters which separate myrmicine from myrmeciine males are not included in this diagnosis; diagnosis based on Yoshimura & FIsher (2007), M.R. Smith (1943) and Boudinot ("Mesoamerican Males" in prep.).

Notes:

This is the largest ant subfamily, with more than 130 species in California alone. Most species are generalist omnivores but some have become specialized as predators, granivores, or fungus-growers.

References:

Bolton (1994, 2000); Ettershank (1966); Kugler (1978a, 1979c, 1986); Ogata (1991b).

Male references:

Smith, M.R. (1943) A generic and subgeneric synopsis of the male ants of the United States. American Midland Naturalist, 30: 273--321.

Yoshimura, M. & Fisher B.L. (2007) A revision of male ants of the Malagasy region (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): key to subfamilies and treatment of the genera of Ponerinae. Zootaxa, 1654: 21--40.

 

Taxon Page Author History

On 2012-09-09 10:41:19 Brendon Boudinot modified References
On 2012-09-09 10:39:00 Brendon Boudinot modified Identification
On 2012-09-09 10:37:13 Brendon Boudinot modified Identification
On 2012-09-09 10:32:58 Brendon Boudinot modified Identification
On 2011-03-31 23:46:13 Brendon Boudinot modified Identification
On 2011-03-31 23:46:13 Brendon Boudinot modified References

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