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Subfamily: Pseudomyrmecinae   Smith, 1952 


Classification:

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2017)

Extant: 1 tribe, 3 genera, 231 species, 25 subspecies

Fossil: 20 species

Pseudomyrmecinae Smith, 1952a PDF: 98. Type-genus: Pseudomyrmex. AntCat AntWiki

Taxonomic history

Pseudomyrmecinae as family: Bernard, 1953b PDF: 221 [Pseudomyrmicidae].
Pseudomyrmecinae as subfamily of Formicidae: Smith, 1952a PDF: 98; Brown, 1954e PDF: 23; all subsequent authors.
Pseudomyrmecinae as myrmeciomorph subfamily of Formicidae: Bolton, 2003 PDF: 30, 134.
Pseudomyrmecinae as formicoid myrmeciomorph subfamily of Formicidae: Ward, 2007C PDF: 556.
Tribe of Pseudomyrmecinae: Pseudomyrmecini.
Subfamily references
See references for tribe Pseudomyrmecini.

Distribution:


Afrotropical Region: Africa, Angola, Bas-Sassandra, Benin, Botswana, Buikwe, Bundibugyo, Bushenyi, Cabo Delgado, Cameroon, Central, Central, Central, Central African Republic, Centre, Congo, Cunene, Dar es Salaam, Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti, East, Eastern, Eastern Africa, Eastern Cape, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Gauteng, Ghana, Guinea, Haut-Katanga, Huambo, Ituri, Ivory Coast, Kabarole, Kajiado, Kakamega, Kavango East, Kenya, Kigoma, Kilifi, Kongo Central, KwaZulu-Natal, Kwale, Kwanza Norte, Kwanza Sul, Kwilu, Kédougou, Laikipia, Liberia, Limpopo, Litoral, Margibi, Middle Africa, Mozambique, Mpumalanga, Namibia, Nigeria, North Bank, North West, North-West, Northern, Ogooué-Maritime, Ogun, Ouémé, Pool, Pwani, Sangha-Mbaéré, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sironko, Sofala, Somalia, South, South Africa, South-West, Southern Africa, Sud-Kivu, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanga, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Wakiso, Western Africa, Western Cape, Woleu-Ntem, Zambia, Zambézia, Zimbabwe
Australasia Region: Australia, Australia and New Zealand, Barrow Island, Central, Gulf, Madang, Maluku, Maluku Utara, Manus, Morobe, National Capital, New South Wales, Northern, Northern Territory, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Oceania, Papua, Papua New Guinea, Queensland, Solomon Islands, South Australia, Western, Western Australia
Indomalaya Region: Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Asia, Assam, Bali, Bangladesh, Belait, Bengkulu, Bhutan, Borneo, Brunei, Cambodia, Central, Chaiyaphum, Chanthaburi, Chhattisgarh, Chiang Mai, Dhaka, Gujarat, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Jawa Barat, Kanchanaburi, Karnataka, Kedah, Kerala, Khon Kaen, Kosī, Krakatau Islands, Krung Thep Maha Nakhon, Kuala Lumpur, Laguna, Lampang, Lampung, Laos, Leyte, Loei, Madhya Pradesh, Mae Hong Son, Maharashtra, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nakhon Nayok, Nakhon Ratchasima, Nantou, Negeri Sembilan, Nepal, Nicobar Island, Occidental Mindoro, Pahang, Pakistan, Perak, Phangnga, Phetchabun, Phetchaburi, Philippines, Phitsanulok, Prachuap Khiri Khan, Puducherry, Punjab, Punjab, Rajasthan, Rakhine, Ratanakiri, Rayong, Romblon, Sabah, Sakon Nakhon, Sarawak, Selangor, Singapore, South-Eastern Asia, Southern Asia, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi Utara, Sumatera Barat, Sumatera Utara, Tacloban, Taiwan, Taiwan, Tamil Nadu, Thailand, Ubon Ratchathani, Uttarakhand, Uva, Vietnam, West Bengal, Western, Yangon, Yunnan, Zambales, Đồng Tháp
Malagasy Region: Antananarivo, Antsiranana, Comoros, Fianarantsoa, Madagascar, Mahajanga, Mayotte, Seychelles, Toamasina, Toliara
Nearctic Region: Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, Baja California, Baja California Sur, California, Chihuahua, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Hidalgo, Louisiana, Mississippi, Montana, México, New Mexico, North America, North Carolina, Nuevo León, Puebla, San Luis Potosí, Sonora, South Carolina, Texas, United States, Washington, D.C., Zacatecas
Neotropical Region: Acre, Ahuachapán, Alajuela, Alta Verapaz, Amapá, Amazonas, Amazonas, Amazonas, Amazonas, Americas, Ancash, Antioquia, Anzoátegui, Aragua, Arauca, Argentina, Artemisa, Aruba, Atacama, Atlántico, Atlántida, Azua, Bahamas, Bahia, Barbados, Barinas, Belize, Belize, Boaco, Bocas del Toro, Bolivia, Bolívar, Bolívar, Boquerón, Boyacá, Brazil, Buenos Aires, Caaguazú, Camagüey, Campeche, Canindeyú, Caquetá, Carabobo, Carazo, Caribbean, Cartago, Casanare, Catamarca, Cauca, Cayman Islands, Cayo, Ceará, Central, Central America, Cesar, Chaguanas, Chalatenango, Chiapas, Chile, Chinandega, Chiriquí, Chocó, Choluteca, Cibao Nordeste, Cibao Noroeste, Cibao Norte, Ciudad de México, Cochabamba, Colima, Colombia, Colonia, Colón, Colón, Comayagua, Coquimbo, Cordillera, Corozal, Corrientes, Cortés, Costa Caribe Norte, Costa Caribe Sur, Costa Rica, Couva-Tabaquite-Talparo, Cuba, Cundinamarca, Cusco, Cuyuni-Mazaruni, Córdoba, Darién, Demerara-Mahaica, Diego Martin, Distrito Federal, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Beni, El Progreso, El Salvador, Elías Piña, Enriquillo, Entre Ríos, Escuintla, Esmeraldas, Essequibo Islands-West Demerara, Estelí, Exuma, Falcón, Formosa, Francisco Morazán, French Guiana, Gracias a Dios, Granada, Granma, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guanacaste, Guatemala, Guatemala, Guaviare, Guayas, Guerrero, Guyana, Guárico, Haiti, Harbour Island, Heredia, Herrera, Holguín, Honduras, Huehuetenango, Huila, Huánuco, Islas de la Bahía, Itapúa, Izabal, Jalisco, Jamaica, Jinotega, Jujuy, Junin, Jutiapa, Kingston, Kuna Yala, La Guajira, La Libertad, La Libertad, La Paz, La Paz, La Rioja, La Unión, Lambayeque, Lara, Lempira, León, Limón, Loreto, Los Ríos, Los Ríos, Los Santos, Madre de Dios, Madriz, Magdalena, Managua, Mangrove Cay, Maranhão, María Trinidad Sánchez, Masaya, Matagalpa, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Maule, Mayaro-Rio Claro, Meta, Mexico, Michoacán de Ocampo, Minas Gerais, Miranda, Misiones, Monagas, Morelos, Morona-Santiago, Mérida, Nacional, Napo, Nariño, Nayarit, New Providence, Nicaragua, Nueva Esparta, Oaxaca, Ocotepeque, Olancho, Orange Walk, Orellana, Ouest, Ozama, Panama, Panamá, Panamá Oeste, Para, Paraguarí, Paraguay, Paraná, Pará, Pastaza, Paysandú, Penal-Debe, Peru, Petén, Pichincha, Pinar del Río, Portuguesa, Presidente Hayes, Princes Town, Puerto Rico, Puntarenas, Quintana Roo, Región Metropolitana, Retalhuleu, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Risaralda, Rivas, Rondônia, Río San Juan, Sacatepéquez, Saint Andrew, Saint Elizabeth, Saint James, Saint Lucia, Saint Thomas, Salta, San Andres y Providencia, San Cristóbal, San José, San Juan-Laventille, San Martín, San Miguel, San Pedro, San Salvador, San Salvador, San Vicente, Sancti Spíritus, Santa Catarina, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santa Rosa, Santiago de Cuba, Sinaloa, Sipaliwini, Sololá, Sonsonate, South Abaco, South America, Suchitepéquez, Sucre, Sucumbíos, Suriname, São Paulo, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tobago, Tocantins, Tolima, Trinidad and Tobago, Trujillo, Tucumán, Tunapuna-Piarco, Tungurahua, Ucayali, Upper Demerara-Berbice, Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo, Uruguay, Valle, Valle del Cauca, Valparaíso, Vaupés, Venezuela, Veracruz, Veraguas, Villa Clara, Westmoreland, Yaracuy, Yoro, Yucatán, Zacapa, Zamora-Chinchipe, Zulia, Ñeembucú
Oceania Region: Hawaii, Melanesia
Palearctic Region: Abyan, Algeria, China, Eastern Asia, Eastern Europe, Egypt, Europe, Georgia, Israel, Japan, Kaliningrad, Libya, North Korea, Northern Africa, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Sichuan, United Arab Emirates, Western Asia, Yemen

Identification:

Workers of this subfamily can be recognized by the combination of large eyes (EL/HL usually > 0.25), short mandibles, flexible promesonotal connection, and presence of a postpetiole. Other characteristic features include: antennal sockets partly exposed in full-face (frontal) view; scape relatively short (SL/HL < 0.75); clypeus narrow (front to back) and not extending posteriorly between the frontal carinae; metapleural gland orifice situated at extreme posteroventral margin of metapleuron; hind tibia usually with two apical spurs, of which the posterior spur is pectinate; and sting well developed.

Notes:

These are slender, large-eyed arboreal ants, predominantly tropical or subtropical in distribution. One genus and two species occur in California.

References:

Bolton (1994); Ward (1989a, 1990, 1991, 2001).


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