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Subfamily: Pseudomyrmecinae   Smith, 1952 


Classification:

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2017)

Extant: 1 tribe, 3 genera, 231 species, 25 subspecies

Fossil: 20 species

Pseudomyrmecinae Smith, 1952a PDF: 98. Type-genus: Pseudomyrmex. AntCat AntWiki

Taxonomic history

Pseudomyrmecinae as family: Bernard, 1953b PDF: 221 [Pseudomyrmicidae].
Pseudomyrmecinae as subfamily of Formicidae: Smith, 1952a PDF: 98; Brown, 1954e PDF: 23; all subsequent authors.
Pseudomyrmecinae as myrmeciomorph subfamily of Formicidae: Bolton, 2003 PDF: 30, 134.
Pseudomyrmecinae as formicoid myrmeciomorph subfamily of Formicidae: Ward, 2007C PDF: 556.
Tribe of Pseudomyrmecinae: Pseudomyrmecini.
Subfamily references
See references for tribe Pseudomyrmecini.

Distribution:


Afrotropical Region: Angola, Bas Congo, Botswana, Bundibugyo, Bushenyi, Cameroon, Cape, Central African Republic, Centre, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti, Eastern, Eastern Cape, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Gauteng, Ghana, Guinea, Huambo, Ivory Coast, Kabarole, Kenya, Kilifi, KwaZulu Natal, KwaZulu-Natal, Laikipia, Liberia, Limpopo, Mozambique, Mpumalanga, Namibia, Nigeria, North Bank, North West, Ogooue-Maritime, Prefecture Sangha-Mbaéré, Senegal, Serowe, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, Sud, Sud-Ouest, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanga, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, W. Cape, Wakiso, Wakiso District, Western Cape, Woleu-Ntem, Zambia, Zimbabwe
Australasia Region: Barrow Island, Central, Gulf, Madang, Maluku, Maluku Utara, Manus, Morobe, National Capital, New Guinea, New South Wales, Northern, Northern Territory, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Papua New Guinea, Queensland, San Cristobal, Solomon Islands, South Australia, Western, Western Australia
Indomalaya Region: Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bali, Bangladesh, Belait, Bengkulu, Bhutan, Borneo, Brunei, Cambodia, Chaiyaphum, Chanthaburi, Chiang Mai, Gujarat, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Java, Kanchanaburi, Karnataka, Kedah, Kerala, Khonkaen, Krakatau Islands, Krung Thep Mahanakhon, Laguna, Lampung, Laos, Leyte, Loei, Madhya Pradesh, Mae Hong Son, Maharashtra, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nakhon Nayok, Nakhon Ratchasima, Nantou, Negeri Sembilan, Nepal, Nicobar Island, North Sumatra, Pahang, Pakistan, Perak, Phang Nga, Phetchabun, Philippines, Phitsanulok, Punjab, Rajasthan, Rakhine, Rayong, Sabah, Sakon Nakhon, Sarawak, Selangor, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi Utara, Taiwan, Tamil Nadu, Thailand, Ubon Ratchathani, Uttarakhand, Uva, Vietnam, West Bengal, West Papua, West Sumatra, Yangon, Yunnan, Zambales
Malagasy Region: Antananarivo, Antsiranana, Comoros, Diego-Suarez, Fianarantsoa, Madagascar, Mahajanga, Mayotte, Seychelles, Toamasina, Toliara, Tulear
Nearctic Region: Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, Baja California, Baja California Sur, California, Chihuahua, Colorado, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Hidalgo, Louisiana, Mississippi, México, New Mexico, North Carolina, Nuevo Leon, Puebla, Sonora, South Carolina, Texas, Zacatecas
Neotropical Region: Acre, Ahuachapán, Alajuela, Alta Verapaz, Amapá, Amazonas, Ancash, Anzoategui, Aragua, Argentina, Artemisa, Atacama, Atlántico Sur, Atlántida, Bahamas, Bahia, Barbados, Barinas, Belize, Beni, Boaco, Bocas del Toro, Bolivia, Bolívar, Brazil, Buenos Aires, Caaguazú, Camaguey, Campeche, Canal Zone, Canindeyú, Caquetá, Carabobo, Carazo, Cartago, Casanare, Catamarca, Cauca, Cayenne, Cayman Islands, Cayo, Chiapas, Chile, Chocó, Choluteca, Cochabamba, Colima, Colombia, Colonia, Comayagua, Cordillera, Corrientes, Costa Rica, Couva/Tabaquite/Talparo, Cuba, Cusco, Cuyuni-Mazaruni, Darien, Demerara, Distrito Capital, Distrito Federal, Distrito Nacional, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Progreso, El Salvador, Escuintla, Estelí, Exuma, Exumas, Formosa, Francisco Morazán, French Guiana, Goiás, Gracias a Dios, Granada, Granma, Great Abaco, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guanacaste, Guatemala, Guayas, Guerrero, Guyana, Guárico, Haiti, Heredia, Herrera, Holguin, Honduras, Huehuetenango, Huila, Huánuco, Islas de la Bahía, Itapúa, Izabal, Jalisco, Jamaica, Jinotega, Jujuy, Jutiapa, Kemps Bay, Kuna Yala, La Guajira, La Libertad, La Paz, La Unión, Lambayeque, Lara, Lempira, León, Loreto, Los Rios, Los Santos, Madre de Dios, Madriz, Magdalena, Managua, Maranhão, Maria Trinidad Sanchez, Marsh Harbour, Masaya, Matagalpa, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Misiones, Morelos, Morona Santiago, Mérida, Napo, Nayarit, Neembucú, New Providence, Nicaragua, Oaxaca, Ocotepeque, Olancho, Orange Walk, Orellana, Ouest, Panama, Panamá Oeste, Para, Paraguarí, Paraguay, Pastaza, Peru, Petén, Pichincha, Pinar del Río, Portuguesa, Provincia de Napo, Pte. Hayes, Puerto Rico, Puntarenas, Quintana Roo, Región Autónoma del Atlántico Norte, Región Autónoma del Atlántico Sur, Retalhuleu, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Rivas, Rondônia, Rupununi, Río San Juan, Sacatepéquez, Saint Andrew, Saint Elizabeth, Saint James, Salta, San Andrés y Providencia, San Blas, San José, San Luis Potosi, San Pedro, San Salvador, Santa Catarina, Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa, Santiago de Cuba, Sao Paulo, Sinaloa, Sipaliwini, Sololá, Sonsonate, Suchitepéquez, Sucumbios, Suriname, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Territorio Federal Amazonas, Tolima, Trinidad and Tobago, Trujillo, Tucumán, Tunapuna-Piarco, Upper Demerara-Berbice, Uruguay, Valle, Valle de Cauca, Valle del Cauca, Valparaíso, Venezuela, Veracruz, Veraguas, Villa Clara, West Demerara, Westmoreland, Westmorland, Yaracuy, Yucatán, Zacapa, Zulia
Oceania Region: Hawaii
Palearctic Region: Algeria, China, Egypt, Georgia, Israel, Japan, Libya, North Korea, Saudi Arabia, Sichuan, United Arab Emirates, Yemen

Identification:

Workers of this subfamily can be recognized by the combination of large eyes (EL/HL usually > 0.25), short mandibles, flexible promesonotal connection, and presence of a postpetiole. Other characteristic features include: antennal sockets partly exposed in full-face (frontal) view; scape relatively short (SL/HL < 0.75); clypeus narrow (front to back) and not extending posteriorly between the frontal carinae; metapleural gland orifice situated at extreme posteroventral margin of metapleuron; hind tibia usually with two apical spurs, of which the posterior spur is pectinate; and sting well developed.

Notes:

These are slender, large-eyed arboreal ants, predominantly tropical or subtropical in distribution. One genus and two species occur in California.

References:

Bolton (1994); Ward (1989a, 1990, 1991, 2001).


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