Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2013)
Nicaragua, Costa Rica. Costa Rica: Atlantic and southern Pacific lowlands.
This species inhabits lowland wet to moist forest leaf litter. It is most often encountered in Winkler and Berlese samples. Workers were once collected at a honey/oil bait on the forest floor. Its frequency in Berlese samples suggests it is largely subterranean.
Note by Longino, 6 Nov 2013: I re-evaluated my concept of P. beloceps
. DNA barcoding puts Costa Rican (La Selva) and Nicaraguan specimens in different clusters. The Nicaraguan specimens have the major worker with larger, more rectangular head, with vertex lobes smooth and shiny. This form occurs elsewhere in Nicaragua, Honduras, and Chiapas, Mexico, but so far there are no Guatemala records. The minors are indistinguishable from Costa Rican beloceps
. I put this northern form in the morphospecies JTL225. Among the mounted material, the only site where both species occurred was Cerro Musún in southern Nicaragua. Pheidole beloceps
was in the miniWinkler transects at 700-800m elevation; Pheidole
JTL225 was in higher elevation maxiWinklers, 1000-1400m. In the database, I reidentified all material north of Musún as JTL225, including material in etoh that I did not re-examine. For Musún, I identified all material below 800m as P. beloceps
; all material above as JTL225. Ethanol material should be re-examined, although minors cannot be separated at this point.
Taxon Page Author History
On 2013-11-06 17:44:55 jack longino modified Comments
On 2013-11-06 17:44:46 jack longino modified Biology
On 2013-11-06 17:44:17 jack longino modified Distribution
Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)
Wilson, E. O.:
etymology Gr beloceps , arrow-headed, referring to the elongate and vertically thin head capsule.
diagnosis A small, yellow species whose major has an elongated head, the dorsal surface of which, with the exception of the midclypeus and frontal triangle, is completely foveolate and opaque; the rest of the cephalic sculpturing comprising longitudinal carinulae confined to the anterior half of the capsule; antennal scrobe absent; thick long, vertical propodeal spines are present, thin tips turning slightly forward in side view; small, subangulate mesonotal convexity present, and postpetiolar node conulate. Similar to charazana , longinoi , neolongiceps , and prolixa , but differing from each in various combinations of the above traits, and other traits, as illustrated.
Measurements (mm) Holotype major: HW 0.74, HL 0.96, SL 0.30, EL 0.06, PW 0.42. Paratype minor: HW 0.40, HL 0.48, SL 0.36, EL 0.04, PW 0.26. color Major: body dark yellow, appendages medium yellow. Minor: concolorous medium yellow.
Range Costa Rica.
Biology Found in leaf litter of lowland rainforest; workers were attracted to baits (Longino 1997).
figure Upper: holotype, major. Lower: paratype, minor. COSTA RICA: 4 km east of Turrialba, Cartago, 550 m (J. T. Longino). Scale bars = 1 mm.
Specimen Habitat Summary
Found most commonly in these habitats: 220 times found in mature wet forest, 16 times found in tropical wet forest, 15 times found in lowland rainforest, 11 times found in montane wet forest, 1 times found in Puesto5,36G,10m., 1 times found in Puesto2, 145G,10m., 1 times found in Trampa5,289G. 10m., 1 times found in wet forest, 1 times found in SS0, 1 times found in Puesto 6, 239g.,10m., ...
Collected most commonly using these methods or in the following microhabitats: 233 times miniWinkler, 24 times Mini Winkler, 8 times Berlese, 10 times Winkler, 3 times baiting, 2 times Malaise, 1 times Lure/Bait, 1 times maxiWinkler, 1 times flight intercept trap
Elevations: collected from 50 - 750 meters, 161 meters average
Type specimens: holotype major Pheidole beloceps: inbiocri001282094; Paratype Pheidole beloceps: casent0625437, casent0625438; paratype Pheidole beloceps: inbiocri001243000, inbiocri001268544, inbiocri001270454, inbiocri001270969, inbiocri001270970, inbiocri001270971, inbiocri001271022, inbiocri001274755, inbiocri001281942
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