Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2013)
This common and widely distributed species ranges from Florida, the Caribbean and Mexico, south to Argentina.
shows a preference for nesting in dead twigs of woody shrubs or trees, rather than in dead stalks of herbaceous plants. In Florida, nests have been collected in dead twigs or stalks of Baccharis halimifolia
, Cladium jamaicense
, Laguncularia racemosa
, Metopium toxiferum
. and Nectandra coriacea
; there are also museum records from Carya floridana
and Swietenia mahagoni
. Ward (1985) recorded Costa Rican nests of P. simplex
in dead twigs of Anacardium
, Ardisia revoluta
, Avicennia germinans
, Conocarpus erectus
, Gliricidia sepium
, Hibiscus tiliaceus
, and Terminalia catappa
Most P. simplex
nests dissected by Ward (1985) were queenless (indicating a high level of polydomy),
some were monogynous, and one contained two functional (i.e. inseminated, with well-developed ovaries) dealate queens.
Alates have been collected in May, June, and September in Florida.
- standing pilosity sparse, absent from mesonotum and propodeum
- small size (HW 0.55-0.74)
- eyes relatively long (REL 0.52-0.61)
- abdominal tergite IV smooth and shining, lacking a dense mat of appressed pubescence
- vertex of head smooth and shining
- profemur broad (FI 0.45-0.52)
This species is the smallest one of a trio of orange Pseudomyrmex
, P. seminole
, P. simplex
) which have been confused repeatedly in the United States. P. simplex
workers are recognizable by their smooth, shiny, puncticulate head; broad forefemur (FI >0.44); and shining fourth abdominal tergite which is devoid of a dense mat of appressed pubescence. In addition the workers have long eyes, closely contiguous frontal carinae, a very shallow metanotal groove, and a short petiole and postpetiole. There is a fair range of variation in size and body proportions. P. simplex
tends to be lighter in color than related species, and the fuscous patches on abdominal tergite IV are usually conspicuous, at least in Florida populations (less so in Central and South America).
Ward, P. S. 1985. The Nearctic species of the genus Pseudomyrmex
(Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Quaestiones Entomologicae 21: 209-246.
Taxon Page Author History
Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)
Wild, A. L., 2007:
Canindeyú , Central, “ Paraná R.” (Dept. unknown) (ALWC, IFML, INBP, MCZC).
Specimen Data Summary
Found most commonly in these habitats: 27 times found in montane wet forest, 9 times found in CCL 700m., 13 times found in tropical moist forest, 9 times found in tropical rainforest, 9 times found in 2º lowland rainforest, 8 times found in La Selva, 6 times found in wet forest, 7 times found in Entre SHO y SSE, 7 times found in lowland wet forest, 3 times found in CES 400, ...
Collected most commonly using these methods or in the following microhabitats: 74 times Fogging, 42 times Malaise, 29 times Search, 28 times Beating, 7 times MiniWinkler, 5 times MaxiWinkler, 5 times Baiting, 3 times flight intercept trap, 2 times Berlese, 1 times pan trap, 2 times Sweeping, ...
Elevations: collected from 5 - 1200 meters, 193 meters average